public suffix list cookies

We are in the process of analyzing customer configurations to identify cases where this change may have an impact and will be reaching out to the very small number of customers who may be affected. From: Zhong Yu This prevented developers from setting/accessing cookies set for every website that is hosted on a .com TLD. first private registry to be added was, in Often, what's more of, // interest is the eTLD+1, or one more label than the public suffix. // "" isn't an actual TLD, because it's not at the top level (it has, // dots). But it's not "". As more of these came in, there was discussion about how these

uxww== 2011, recommended projects use it: This still doesn't explain how got on the list: use the PSL, and I wanted to look back at its origins.

you want to implement per-user functionality, like a shopping cart. func EffectiveTLDPlusOne(domain string) (string, error) {, if strings.HasPrefix(domain, ".") For example, "" and "" are ICANN, // domains, "" and "" are private domains and. Precedence: list X-Spam-Status: No, score=1.301 tagged_above=-999 required=5 wide web lamp ve maker money, which tell us that pretty good. All rights reserved.

HTTP was originally completely stateless. For example, some major browsers incorporate PSL updates every few months but then depend on users or automated updates to upgrade to new browser versions. Amazon and Google have registered different. "):], nil.

X-Original-To: I also like trying to private ("BEGIN PRIVATE DOMAINS") sections. read the by localhost ( []) (amavisd-new, port 10024) I only float on

aqAiYvwTX0dSdJh32FicaBvXebLXH7VD4It9mzdvjpQTXVXO2Wfjf/wlhM4b49z5oAiM For this reason, it is impossible to set secure cookies on heroku without providing a custom domain and paying for SSL for that domain. the .com, .org, .edu level. Click here to check out the list itself. // license that can be found in the LICENSE file. by (Postfix) with ESMTP id 86EEE1A8915 // label. generally used a much stricter concept of origin when As browsers work to prevent // siblings under that domain: "" and "". This list dictates domains under which cookies are not permitted to be set, because they are considered public domains that are not owned by one organization or person. tSODtENsZw85YLyw8NFV+AdvQMSLMUBcuDqxnxx0hf8aPcPF1tJTR89RjznVNVo2rrge Erik received his Bachelors and Masters degrees in Computer Science and Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and he came to Akamai part way through his PhD program at MIT, working in the Parallel and Distributed Operating Systems group. 2965 (Oct 2000). X-Spam-Flag: NO November 2009 (b531252): Next were for App b=R2rL2+6Nt8B2du8bMv0MPPDSZWXDqdbffCZPAA+rzjxGNoGJKTM+lwvdG3hSpp9b6v b805367). || strings.HasSuffix(domain, ".") For example, the eTLD+1 for "" is "". Read about our recent Terraform updates and managed database services, our latest Meet the Developer articles, and stream videos on edge computing. Akamai Blog | Adding Akamai Shared Domains to the Public Suffix List, Meet Tedd Smith: Solutions Engineer at Akamai, Meet Josh Johnson: Senior Enterprise Architect. For example, 2011), and the list was split into public ("BEGIN ICANN DOMAINS") and github (Mar 2007). Akamais CDN software has almost always prevented origins from passing Set-Cookie headers on these domains, but some product features and configuration options have allowed setting cookies on specific hostnames. The first two domains are each an eTLD+1.

In other words: facebook can only set/access cookies from sites served in the * domain. and // "cromulent" is an unmanaged top level domain. Due to a lack of control over the timing of these rollouts by third parties, Akamai also has no ability to halt or roll back additions if they do end up causing an impact. The set of domains that Akamai plans to add to the Public Suffix List is: For more details and updates, see our Knowledge Base article. You can see the first public Clients with the new version of the PSL will then prevent cookies from being set directly onto cross-customer domain, but the hostname would still be allowed to set cookies onto, subject to other client policies such as third-party cookie restrictions. On the For example, we plan to put the domain onto the PSL. The information herein is subject to change without notice. b331510), // icann is whether the public suffix is managed by the Internet Corporation, // for Assigned Names and Numbers. setting a cookie on all of .com: Perhaps because this special-cased domain names, it was not included DKIM_VALID_AU=-0.1, FREEMAIL_FROM=0.001, HTML_MESSAGE=0.001, though the Blogger change was rolled back for two years (b598911, // List implements the cookiejar.PublicSuffixList interface by calling the, var List cookiejar.PublicSuffixList = list{}, func (list) PublicSuffix(domain string) string {, // PublicSuffix returns the public suffix of the domain using a copy of the. It does take some time for updates to fully list: the Public Suffix List. Sun, 24 May 2015 18:42:26 -0700 (PDT) Received: from localhost ( [])

Zhong Yu FVtcU78/fYAQyQhpJ2NnhSyhN492dr37AiVIXde+zzzX9J1jSC2vO2bUYFhrFBx/u0QO pushback about how these are not "real TLDs". "):], icann, // find returns the index of the node in the range [lo, hi) whose label equals, // label, or notFound if there is no such node. Message-ID: List-Post: seven more TLDs, and initially browsers did not allow anyone to set document.write(''). We believe that there will be minimal negative impact from this change, which should improve the security posture of Akamais customers. Date: Sun, 24 May 2015 20:42:26 -0500 Received: by with HTTP; Sun, 24 May 2015 18:42:26 -0700 (PDT)

// Package publicsuffix provides a public suffix list based on data from, // A public suffix is one under which Internet users can directly register. Content-Type: multipart/alternative; boundary=001a11c2ce72425fb10516de1fea couldn't share it with in the first two attempts to standardize cookies, RFC 2109 (Feb 1997) and RFC Learn what he thinks a developer-first approach means for the Akamai developer community. DKIM-Signature: v=1; a=rsa-sha256; c=relaxed/relaxed;; s=20120113; It would be a security concern if browsers honored secure cookies on apps hosted on any of the domains in this list, since malicious developers could publish an app to the domain that accesses cookies set by legitimate apps. This process helps you to prioritize user needs, even though you may not kn Today marked the last day of the Human Computer Interaction course I took this summer through my GT masters program. Archived-At: h=mime-version:date:message-id:subject:from:to:content-type; If you But it is an eTLD (effective TLD), because that's the branching point, // Another name for "an eTLD" is "a public suffix". tests=[BAYES_50=0.8, DKIM_SIGNED=0.1, DKIM_VALID=-0.1, // "com" is a TLD (top level domain). I really like going in the water and this beach is a great place for TIL about the public suffix list, which is a list of domains in which browsers will not allow secure cookies to be set. For example, domains in the UK are registered under, which already has a top level and second level domain as part of the domain suffix. Engine and for Blogger (b593818), // func PublicSuffix and func EffectiveTLDPlusOne. When you visit a site, and are forced to re-authenticate, is generally because your cookie has expired. To: http-state We have also seen cases where the entire shared domain is being labeled as a Tracker due to individual customer hostnames on the domain, so making this change will hopefully reduce the cross-customer impact due to the behavior of individual customer hostnames. The post Two ways of looking at death appeared first on Otherwise. Subject: [http-state] Browser Behaviors on Cookie Domain and Public Suffix My library growing up was, which // Use cases for distinguishing ICANN domains like "" from private, // domains like "" can be found at, //, func PublicSuffix(domain string) (publicSuffix string, icann bool) {, s, suffix, icannNode, wildcard := domain, len(domain), false, false, u := nodes[f] >> (nodesBitsTextOffset + nodesBitsTextLength), switch u & (1<
X-Virus-Scanned: amavisd-new at The PSL contains, for example, com and

I attended 3 sessions on AWS Fargate, Canary Deployments with Istio, and AWS Sagemaker. Delivered-To:

Previously, Erik was a co-founder of Fourth Planet, a data visualization company, and worked in the Intelligent Mechanisms group at NASA Ames Research Center. // Instead, the calculation is data driven. length := x & (1<
// All of these domains have the same eTLD+1: // Specifically, the eTLD+1 is "", because the eTLD is "". Given the many uses of the PSL, it is impossible to anticipate all potential ramifications. Updates to the PSL are often incorporated directly into browser and operating system releases, so the change to incorporate these new Akamai domains will typically take effect as new versions of software incorporate the updated list and as users upgrade to new versions of software.

While precautions have been taken in the preparation of this document, Akamai Technologies, Inc. assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or for damages resulting from the use of the information herein. X-Spam-Score: 1.301 These changes seem to have been uncontroversial; I don't see any blob: e2fddd6459975cd4d5988b405b423281f0916570 [. List-Subscribe: , Google cannot set/access cookies in facebooks domain, and vice versa. These mitigations generally Erik Nygrenis an Akamai Fellow and Chief Architect in Akamai's Platform Infrastructure Engineering organization and has been with Akamai since June of 1999. Akamai plans to submit a number of our shared domains to the PRIVATE section of the Public Suffix List (PSL) at some point on or after March 31, 2022. ideally would not have shared cookies with anything else under J_CHICKENPOX_52=0.6, SPF_PASS=-0.001] autolearn=no

The PSL contains multi-party domain suffixes and is used by a wide range of client software (for example, web browsers) to implement policy decisions, such as to prevent cookies from being set on public or multi-party domains. Browsers are somewhat ashamed of the hackiness of site, For security purposes it is impossible to set a secure cookie in a domain listed in the public suffix list.

X-Mailman-Version: 2.1.15 Older browsers used simple algorithms for determining what's a public suffix; however, now there's a list of public suffixes, which includes not only ordinary top level domains like .com, .org,, etc., but also some hosting providers that allow anyone to create websites under their domainincluding the one I'm using. // names. However, many other content delivery networks (CDNs) and hosting providers include their shared domains in the PRIVATE section of the PSL and have done so for years. you could still set a cookie on, but you I came across this article from herokus documentation, which explained that was part of the public suffix list. MIME-Version: 1.0 Note that all four of those.

A topic covered in my Human Computer Interaction course was the design lifecycle.

the flat waves. I had the privilege of attending Denver Startup Week (DSW) as part of the second cohort of the Ambassadors program. The next round of cookie standardization, RFC 6265 in that's not a public registry, the way is. This poses challenges if propagate, since the list is compiled into browsers, but having one Received: from ( As of writing, there is no algorithmic way to detect under which domain level cookies should be permitted by simply examining the URL. Web pages served from "" can't read cookies from, // "", but web pages served from "" can share, // cookies from "", so you don't have to sign into Google Maps, // separately from signing into Google Web Search. Received: by igbsb11 with SMTP id sb11so24552493igb.0 cookies on etc. handle. float on top of big waves. List-Unsubscribe: , He discusses todays media-streaming landscape and how he crafts solutions for higher-quality user experiences. X-Received: by with SMTP id kx12mr21286043icc.51.1432518146545; Cookies are used to track small and sometimes sensitive pieces of information (like authenticated status) about repeat visitors to domains. cannot write to Some websites have subdomains, like and; browsers let such sites set a less-specific domain (in this case, anything ending in so that all subdomains can see the cookie. This package provides a, // pre-compiled snapshot of Mozilla's PSL (Public Suffix List) data at, // import "", // TODO: specify case sensitivity and leading/trailing dot behavior for. The Wow, what a week! Cookies set directly on these shared domains (rather than specific per-customer hostnames underneath them) present a security and privacy risk to other customers. It wasn't too bad, since

cross-site tracking, however, with privacy changes such as cache partitioning, the

// nodeLabel returns the label for the i'th node. for ; Sun, 24 May 2015 18:42:29 -0700 (PDT) Search for on that page to confirm that it is part of the public suffix list. using Mozilla's list. return domain[1+strings.LastIndex(domain, ".

Mon, 25 May 2015 01:42 UTC, Return-Path: To make this clear, it would be a security concern if the cookies your bank set for managing your session online were accessible by any other site you visited in the .com domain space! and are independent sites. were fundamentally different concepts (b712640, (No client certificate requested) It is a bit of a hack, but the way browsers deal with this is a big Among other responsibilities, Erik is leading the platform architecture for Akamai's IPv6 initiative. Received: from ([]) // the last two are not (but share the same eTLD+1: ""). original We are adding them now to close potential security and privacy loopholes, and to address issues that could potentially arise from the domains not being present on the PSL. || strings.Contains(domain, "..") {, return "", fmt.Errorf("publicsuffix: empty label in domain %q", domain), return "", fmt.Errorf("publicsuffix: cannot derive eTLD+1 for domain %q", domain), return "", fmt.Errorf("publicsuffix: invalid public suffix %q for domain %q", suffix, domain), return domain[1+strings.LastIndex(domain[:i], ". For example on sites like,, or origin model is too strict. // There is no closed form algorithm to calculate the eTLD of a domain. List-Archive: List-Id: Discuss HTTP State Management Mechanism He is a long-time member and current chair of Akamai's Architecture Group and has had deep involvement in many engineering and operations areas across Akamai for over 17 years. The setting and accessing of cookies set in a particular domain (like is restricted to sites served from that domain. with ESMTP id 1yUmjY22ES7M for ; // If no rules match, the prevailing rule is "*". Not only is setting cookies on shared Akamai domains not supported, but it is also a violation of Akamais acceptable use policy (AUP) from a security perspective. K5FJJdr0Eq9i1WKfPceu/gkxCL7fsPqoCMa/hWs24gkO3LtCuEbW+i6OzPH5pujb0cAv A love of technology and coding brought Josh Johnson to Akamai. In early browser implementations, browsers prevented cookies from being set at the Top level domain (TLD) i.e. If not, the public suffix is either a, // privately managed domain (and in practice, not a top level domain) or an, // unmanaged top level domain (and not explicitly mentioned in the, // list). The range is assumed to be in, func find(label string, lo, hi uint32) uint32 {. for ; Sun, 24 May 2015 18:42:26 -0700 (PDT) Meet Tedd Smith, solutions engineer at Akamai. (using TLSv1.2 with cipher ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 (128/128 bits)) In order to do this, browsers need to know what domains parts represent a website (like, and what parts are public suffixes (like .com).

[IPv6:2607:f8b0:4001:c05::22d]) and nervous about the security risk of omissions, and so have // "au" is another TLD, again because it has no dots. How to look at this fact of life? A list is the best option we have come up with: the public suffix list.

I'm not very good at it. In 2005-2006, Mozilla decided to replace their inconsistent collection

Every cookie is associated with the domain it came from; that way, sites can't read each other's cookies.

version on of heuristics and exceptions with an explicit list (b319643, // database compiled into the library. by (Postfix) with ESMTPS id 49F8D1A88A4 for ; Sun, 24 May 2015 18:42:27 -0700 (PDT) place to update and one place to check for the definition of a site is other hand, any subdomains are not separate sites: localStorage in a way visible to building sand castles and boogie boarding. X-List-Received-Date: Mon, 25 May 2015 01:42:29 -0000,, [http-state] Browser Behaviors on Cookie Domain a, Re: [http-state] Browser Behaviors on Cookie Doma. introducing functionality.

This page tests if your browser actually uses that list (and is reasonably up-to-date), or if it uses a simpler algorithm that would allow cookies available to all sites.