what chemical was agent orange


Army Chemical Corps personnel are a source of many health reports, but they handled very small amounts of herbicides and large quantities of other chemicals. By 2009, the USDA and the CDC show that the rates of Celiac incidences increased to 77,000 compared to an increase of glyphosate to almost 16,000 x 1,000 lbs. He was a chief gunner on UH-1P helicopters that provided gun cover for RANCH HAND aircraft. Scientists are still trying to understand how Dioxin causes reproductive and developmental abnormalities in humans and impacts the expression of human genes. Tucson, AZ: One South Church Avenue, 12th Floor, Tucson, AZ, 85701 On Korat, for example, the physical training area and Non-Commissioned Officer building were located within the drift zone, and living quarters were only meters away from the perimeter. National Archives records also reveal that herbicides were delivered to Takhli on April 7, 1973. If a veteran has pictures from their service in Thailand that show them on or near the perimeter, those can be submitted to VA as evidence that they spent time around the perimeter of the base. Mr. Collins stated there were several defoliated areas within U-Tapao including around the Aero Space Ground Equipment (AGE) facility, the baseball fields, and the viewing area for the Bob Hope Christmas Show. After the attack on U-Tapao, the 635th Security Police Squadron used herbicides to clear a 100-foot zone on both sides of the perimeter fencing. Section 1116 of title 38 of the United States Code and 38 C.F.R. Although most of the Air Force bases in Thailand were seen as staging hubs for operations within Vietnam, military personnel located throughout Thailand were also subjected to hostile attacks from Communists. Stanford University. agent orange vietnam forest warn duty monsanto dow legacies ugly chemical war thriving dosed once sott transcend Copyright 2022 Chisholm Chisholm & Kilpatrick LTD. All Rights Reserved. By June 1973, the unit was waiting for more herbicides. Please sign up for the occasional Agent Orange Record / War Legacies Project email newsletter.

However, Agent Orange was deemed safe to spray within certain parameters as well and later proved the opposite. Ambassador to authorize herbicide operations. In the early 1960s, military personnel had access to Agents Pink, Purple, and Green, most of which were undiluted versions of 2,4,5-T and therefore contained even higher levels of TCDD than Agent Orange. Note. 3.307 (a)(6)(i) defines an herbicide agent as a chemical in an herbicide used in support of the United States and allied military operations in the Republic of Vietnam . In its original conception, the Memorandum for the Record was never intended to apply to all Thailand exposure claims. She is a Florida native and is also a full time student working on a Bachelors Degree in Legal Studies. A substance containing any of these five compounds is an herbicide agent as a matter of law, regardless of its purpose or name brand. Agent Orange, also known as Herbicide Orange, was one of the many color-coded herbicides of the tactical Rainbow Herbicides that U.S. forces sprayed over Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia during the war. Do You Have Long-Term Disability Insurance Coverage? VA has constructed an arbitrary distinction between tactical and commercial herbicides. In fact, the distinction is notably absent from records until 2009 when VA published a Memorandum for the Record regarding herbicide use in Thailand during the Vietnam Era. Relatively small quantities (2%) were used for defoliation of military base perimeters; 9% of the total was used to destroy unfriendly crops as a means of reducing enemy food supplies. These presumptions result in the award of VA benefits, such as disability compensation, health care, etc. This information is made available for educational purposes only and to provide general information and a general understanding of the law. Philip Jones Griffiths, Agent Orange:Collateral Damage in Viet Nam, 2004. These findings show that the use of glyphosate could be a public health concern. Hopefully, nothing. The term commercial in reference to herbicides is equally absent from VAs internal policies and procedures and from federal statutes and regulations. Notably, Mr. Pippengers statement and the time period in which he served at Udorn coincide with official records of the delivery of 28,000 gallons of Agents Orange and Blue to Udorn in 1969 and the use of some of those herbicides by C-123 aircraft. This information is not a substitute for legal advice. Agent Orange refers to a specific blend of herbicides used during the Vietnam War. For example, many veterans on or near aircraft or near the barrels containing herbicides were exposed to the same risks as those conducting foot patrols. yet assertive representation for our clients. We later developed a modernized geographic information system, also under an NAS contract.

Only zucchini species and water locusts, so far, have been found to absorb Dioxin. They routinely use this distinction as justification for denying Thailand exposure claims. Studies of South Korean troops who served in Vietnam have revealed increased risks of diabetes and other disorders.7 Much of the existing literature on US veterans relies on exposure methodologies with severe misclassification limitations or on populations too small to allow questions regarding cancer and other chronic diseases to be addressed. The DOD added spray records in 1985, primarily records of Army helicopter spraying of basecamp perimeters. There is a strong suspicion that elevated rates of birth defects may be attributable to herbicides, but scientific corroboration is limited. Historical reports establish that a squadron in 1971 began spraying chemical herbicides on the troublesome plants. In 1972, the leadership at U-Tapao sought to expand use of herbicides in clearing 100 feet from the perimeter fence and invoking an aggressive program on vegetation control. Together, the Airmans statement and historical reports demonstrate consistent use of herbicides in which the Air Force utilized internal equipment to accomplish defoliation. This directly coincides with Air Force documents stating that defoliation operations around the Udorn perimeter occurred during this period.

The threats toward Air Force bases were legitimate and a serious concern for military units stationed in Thailand. The herbicides that contained 2,4,5-T were contaminated with dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD]). In James Trapps affidavit, he states that during his assignment in Takhlis warehouse, he saw barrels labeled 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D. Additionally, he stated the barrels had white destination labels signifying they were for the 315th A/C Sq. Historical Air Force documents from the 315th Air Division verify that 28,000 gallons (approximately 509 barrels) of Agents Orange and Blue were airlifted from Phu Cat, Vietnam, to Udorn in February 1969. Monsanto also has a program called preharvesting, where farmers are taught how and when to spray entire crops of consumable food in order to kill it while still in the ground, drying it out to cause haresting machines less damage and to yield the highest crops. Because service members were exposed to herbicides that were used inside the base, not just at the base perimeter, veterans who served in Thailand should not have to prove that their duties required them to be near the perimeter. Box 449, Deland, FL 32721, Orlando, FL: 605 E. Robinson Street Suite 635, Orlando, FL 32801 We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The term is used only in the Memorandum for the Record and in individual cases wherein VA uses the distinction to deny benefits. If your VA disability claim related to exposure to Agent Orange in Thailand has been denied, we may be able to help you. It will take many more centuries of natural regeneration to reproduce the pre-war tropical and topographical conditions and to recover from mass erosion, among other geomorphic processes, that occurred as a result of systematic defoliation. National Archives records reveal that herbicides were transported from Vietnam to Takhli on April 7, 1973. On the herbicide school application, the listed purpose of the training was to train and certify Thailand based personnel who will be handling herbicides for chemical vegetation control and train personnel on the use, application, dangers and safe handling of herbicides. The class consisted of twelve non-commissioned officers. While attempting to fix the aircraft, he was forced to kneel in the Agent Orange that covered the floor. Further documentation and sworn statements contradict that claim. A 20-year Air Force study of Ranch Hand air and ground crews gathered massive amounts of survey and medical data and reported herbicide-related diabetes; however, because of its small size (the study involved approximately 2800 men), it has low power with respect to many of the health endpoints of interest, and numerous TCDD assays relied on blood drawn decades after exposures occurred. We know this because not everyone who was exposed to Agent Orange got cancer and diabetes, but enough more did that it showed the link scientifically. The article Viet Cong Right or Wrong, published in the National Guardsman in 1966, notes the Defense Departments Advance Research Project Agency was moving forward with defoliant improvement projects in Thailand. Now granted, Mr. Johnson sprayed glyphosate much more often than most average consumers and in amounts much greater than I would ever use on my measly 2/3 acre of yard. On January 17, 1969, seven RANCH HAND aircraft flew to Ubon to conduct an attack the next day against a special target in Laos. Bases in Thailand, including Korat, Nakhon Phanom (NKP), Ubon, Udorn, and U-Tapao, were subjected to sniper fire, perimeter penetration, and sapper (combat engineer) attacks. Fast Letter 09-20 dealt exclusively with Haas-related claims from Thailand veterans that had been stayed. Soldiers lived, worked, and conducted recreational activities near the perimeter and in areas well within the 500-meter drift zone. Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. The M21-1 Adjudication Procedures Manual was later amended to incorporate the perimeter policy, but the Memorandum was never corrected, amended, or removed from the Manual and VA continues to apply the outdated Memorandum to Thailand base perimeter claims. The distance between base perimeters and other base activities was normally well below 500 meters. Los Angeles, CA: 10880 Wilshire Blvd., Ste 1101, Los Angeles, CA 90025 In 1972, vegetation control on Korat was regarded as a serious issue because dense growth provided the enemy with the opportunity to access the KC-135 parking ramp. We calculated that at least 2.1 million but perhaps as many as 4.8 million people in 3181 hamlets were sprayed. From 1965 to 1968, 5,727 Communist insurgents in Thailand were either killed, arrested, or surrendered. Lay statements can go a long way as evidence that a veteran was stationed on or near the perimeter of a base. The Agent Orange story is one of massive exposure of civilian and military populations to toxic chemicals once thought safe. Along with Agent Orange, the US military sprayed other herbicide combinations, as part of Operation Ranch Hand, in the so-called Rainbow herbicides program. He recognized in a draft report that the number of military personnel exposed is unknown because most military bases had vehicle-mounted and back-spray units available for use in routine vegetation control . RoundUp Ready soybeans and canola were introduced in the 1990s, with crops of corn and sugarbeets following. In most countries, 2,4-D is still produced by Dow Agroscience and is a common component of over 70 products, including Scotts Weed and Feed, Miracle-Gro Shake n Feed and Weed B Gone, among many others. Using primary sources (in close collaboration with DOD experts), we expanded the original HERBS file in two ways. Hence, herbicides including Agent Orange were used in Thailand despite VAs denial. In the 1960s, the United States started using herbicides with the chemical TCDD,tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, or more commonly know as Agent Orange, to kill vegetation in areas of Vietnam and part of Laos. Yet, VA has used this Memorandum and the so-called distinction between commercial and tactical herbicides to deny thousands of herbicide-related disability claims by Vietnam-era Thailand veterans. Agent Purple was an early form of Agent Orange that was almost certainly more heavily TCDD contaminated. Since that time, we have provided compassionate Mr. Johnson was diagnosed with non-Hodgkins lymphoma. Are Vietnam Veterans the Only Veterans Exposed to Agent Orange? He wrote in a sworn statement that he was twice assigned the task of diagnosing and repairing a Buffalo Turbine fogger/sprayer unit which sprayed the base consistently for insects and defoliated the base perimeter and other areas on the base. He witnessed drums with orange, blue, or white bands being stored in a shed at the AGE facility surrounded by defoliated soil. The military herbicides were nicknamed in accordance with the colored stripes on their 55-gallon drums. Hundreds of thousands of drums contaminated with residual herbicides made their way through the impoverished countryside for a variety of uses.1, At least 3851 of the 5958 known fixed-wing missions had targeted flight paths directly over South Vietnamese hamlets. Agent Pink consisted only of 2,4,5-T as a 60:40 mixture of its n-butyl and isobutyl esters. When addressing the adequacy of facility security, official documents state that herbicides were applied to the fenced in area around the ammo storage, facility, around all perimeter guard towers, and the areas around runway overrun lights. The 1973 CHECO report also states that herbicides were used on areas within the perimeter. (Emphasis added.) Leaking barrels also directly exposed service members to herbicides. 3.307 and 3.309 provide the legal authority and framework for awarding benefits to Vietnam veterans with herbicide agent-related diseases. However, with chemicals, what affects one person one way, can affect another in a completely different way. Despite reports in the press of possible health problems of exposed US military personnel emerging in the late 1970s, few peer-reviewed studies involving credible herbicide exposure measures have been carried out. Two separate Institute of Medicine panels rejected these assertions. By 1974, Monsanto had started marketing the product as RoundUp, a broad-spectrum herbicide. The Rules provided authorization for, and limits on, the employment of herbicides throughout the Southeast Asian conflict. But populations directly exposed to TCDD have been found to have higher levels in their blood. (Ranch Hand was an Air Force as opposed to an Army operation.) ScienceDirect is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Data on relationships between herbicide exposures and diseases for which veterans can receive medical attention and benefits are largely derived from environmental and toxicological studies not associated with Vietnam; rather, this information is based on systematic studies conducted by the Institute of Medicine biennially since 1994 (Box 1).4 Many studies of veterans are compromised by severe misclassification: some have defined veterans mere presence in Vietnam as exposure, whereas others have focused on service in the four military combat tactical zones despite the fact that spraying varied dramatically within each zone (e.g., one zone contained unsprayed Saigon and the heavily sprayed Iron Triangle). The heavy foliage provided excellent cover for the enemy. With these mandates, VA has instituted a systematic process that restricts the law and ensures that otherwise qualifying veterans and their families are denied benefits. In view of the above, a mowing operation for vegetation control will be impossible. Seattle, WA: 506 2nd Ave,Suite 1400,Seattle, WA 98104. The use of herbicides on NKP was noted in the 1973 CHECO report and in a soldiers sworn statement. Houston, TX: 2925 Richmond Ave, 12th Floor, Houston, TX 77098 Stomach ache. per wheat. Figure 1.1 lists (and Figure 1.2 illustrates) the chemical composition of each of the herbicide agents as well as the time period in which they were used in Vietnam. Jeanne Stellman, an Agent Orange expert at Columbia Universitys Mailman School of Public Health, and Fred Berman, the director of the Oregon Health and Science Universitys CROET Toxicology Information Center, along with 14 other doctors, toxicologists, and environmental scientists, signed a letter in November 2012 that refutes VAs boots on the ground approach to Agent Orange exposure. Forty-two missions intended to spray 30000 gallons of herbicide are known to have ended with emergency dumps in which the herbicide was jettisoned in about 30 seconds, as compared with the usual four to five minutes.