Average monthly household income is RM9,073 (~$2,200) as of 2016, growing at a pace of approximately 6% a year. Law reforms were implemented and new legal measures introduced to the assembly. Kuala Lumpur is also the birthplace of Hashing, which began in December 1938 when a group of British colonial officers and expatriates, some from the Selangor Club, began meeting on Monday evenings to run, in a fashion patterned after the traditional British Paper Chase or "Hare and Hounds".  From 1980 to 2000 the number of Bumiputeras increased by 77%, but the Chinese still outnumbered the Bumiputeras in Kuala Lumpur in the 2000 census at 43% compared to 38%.
It is one of the fastest growing cities in Asia and the largest city in Malaysia, covering an area of 243km2 (94sqmi) with an census population of 1,982,112 as of 2020[update]. The heads of some taxi associations came out and distanced themselves from taxi drivers who had given the taxi industry a bad name, promising the public that not all taxi drivers were like that. The city, as well as Petaling Jaya and a few other cities in Malaysia is well connected with the RM31 billion MRT system.
The National Art Gallery of Malaysia is located on Jalan Temerloh, off Jalan Tun Razak on a 5.67-hectare (14.0-acre) site neighbouring the National Theatre (Istana Budaya) and National Library.
 Almost 170 RapidKL bus routes are covered with the real time feature, which was expanded to the MRT feeder bus service. , Since 2000, the Malaysian Ministry of Tourism introduced a mega sale event for shopping in Malaysia.
In Kuala Lumpur, most taxis have distinctive white and red liveries. , The local administration is carried out by the Kuala Lumpur City Hall, an agency under the Federal Territories Ministry of Malaysia.
Kuala Lumpur became established as a town circa 1857, when the Malay Chief of Klang, Raja Abdullah bin Raja Jaafar, aided by his brother Raja Juma'at of Lukut, raised funds from Malaccan Chinese businessmen to hire Chinese miners from Lukut to open new tin mines there. Kuala Lumpur has been featured in aspects of popular culture such as movies, television, music and books.
The large service sector is evident in the number of local and foreign banks and insurance companies operating in the city. , Located in the centre of Selangor state, Kuala Lumpur was a territory of Selangor State Government. , The KL Monorail opened on 31 August 2003 with 11 stations running 8.6km (5mi) on two parallel elevated tracks. Prasarana Malaysia has adopted the hub and spoke system to provide greater connectivity, and reduce the need for more buses.
Taxis can be hailed from taxi stands or from the streets. The TRX's landmark and prominent building is The Exchange 106 tower. Kuala Lumpur and its surrounding urban areas form the most industrialised and economically, the fastest-growing region in Malaysia.  The buses run between four hubs at the edge of the central business district, namely KL Sentral, Titiwangsa, Kuala Lumpur City Centre, Maluri, and Medan Pasar in the city centre. He also stipulated in 1884 that buildings should be constructed of brick and tile so that they would be less flammable, and that the town be rebuilt with wider streets to reduce fire risk.
The area covers other administratively separate towns and cities such as Klang, Shah Alam, Putrajaya and others, and is served by the Klang Valley Integrated Transit System.  Royal Selangor has an ultra modern visitor's centre, which allows tours to be conducted through its pewter museum, gallery and factory.
 It is responsible for public health and sanitation, waste removal and management, town planning, environmental protection and building control, social and economic development, and general maintenance functions of urban infrastructure.
Kuala Lumpur has been home for years to important research centres such as the Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia, the Forest Research Institute Malaysia and the Institute of Medical Research.  At that time, Sutan Puasa was already trading near Ampang. In 1880, the colonial administration moved the state capital of Selangor from Klang to the more strategically advantageous Kuala Lumpur, and British Resident William Bloomfield Douglas decided to locate the government buildings and living quarters to the west of the river.  The MATRADE agency is also the owner of the Malaysia International Trade And Exhibition Centre (MITEC), the largest trade and exhibition centre of Malaysia, which is a component of the larger KL Metropolis development situated in the suburb of Segambut.
Air Asia and other low-cost carrier flights do not fly out of KLIA main terminal, but from KLIA2, which is two kilometres from KLIA. Kuala Lumpur however still retained its legislative function, and remained the home of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (Constitutional King). Many of these buildings derive their design from traditional Malay items such as the songkok and the keris. Effective 10 April 2019, all RapidKL buses are implementing fully cashless journey for all routes by stages, in which the bus accepts Touch n Go cards only for user convenience. KLIA connects the city with direct flights to destinations on six continents around the world, and is the main hub for the national carrier, Malaysia Airlines and low-cost carrier, AirAsia. Suria KLCC is one of Malaysia's premier upscale shopping destinations due to its location beneath the Petronas Twin Towers. (2007). Taxis may be flagged down at any time of the day along any public road outside of the Central Business District (CBD).
, Kuala Lumpur is pluralistic and religiously diverse.  The open-wheel auto racing A1 Grand Prix was held until the series folded in 2009. Rapid Bus is however not the only bus operator in Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley.
 Kuala Lumpur grew during the war, and continued after the war during the Malayan Emergency (1948-1960), during which Malaya was preoccupied with a communist insurgency and New Villages were established on the outskirts of the city.
Its location in the most developed state on the west coast of peninsular Malaysia, which has a wider stretch of flat land than the east coast, has helped it develop faster than other cities in Malaysia. The Malaysian Houses of Parliament were completed at the edge of the Lake Gardens in 1963..  However, some sections of the political bodies still remain in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur also is becoming the centre for new media, innovation and creative industry development in the region and hosts the international creative industry event Kreative.Asia, which gathers local, regional and international experts in the creative industry who are involved in the creation, development and delivery of interactive content, arts, community and applications. The Stadium Negara is also located right next to it which is also one of the oldest indoor stadiums in the country.
Also, Kuala Lumpur was designated as the World Book Capital for 2020 by UNESCO..  These 11 districts can be divided into 29 subdistricts. The architecture of Kuala Lumpur is a mixture of old colonial influences, Asian traditions, Malay Islamic inspirations, modern, and postmodern architecture.  As development intensified in the 1880s, putting pressure on sanitation, waste disposal and other health measures.  It is among the fastest growing metropolitan regions in Southeast Asia, both in population and economic development. The current mayor is Datuk Mahadi Che Ngah, who has been in office since October 1, 2020. The other airport is Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport, also known as Subang Skypark and served as the main international gateway to Kuala Lumpur from 1965 until KLIA opened in 1998. Malaysia 1963present, Nobody specifically knows who founded or named Kuala Lumpur. Government offices and a new police headquarters were built on Bukit Aman, and the Padang initially created for police training. The city has many places of worship catering to the multi-religious population.
 Tourism here is driven by the city's cultural diversity, relatively low costs, and wide gastronomic and shopping variety.  In 1931, 61% of Kuala Lumpur's 111,418 inhabitants were Chinese, and in 1947 63.5%.
Islam is practised primarily by the Malays, the Indian Muslim communities and a small number of Chinese Muslims.  The name may also be a corrupted form of an earlier forgotten name. Greater Kuala Lumpur covers an even more extensive selection of universities including several international branches such as Monash University Malaysia Campus, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus and Xiamen University Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur is one of the three federal territories of Malaysia, enclaved within the state of Selangor, on the central west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Executive power lies with the mayor in the city hall, who is appointed for three years by the Federal Territories Minister.
, Frank Swettenham, on becoming the British Resident, began improving the town by cleaning up the streets.  The municipality covers an area of 243km2 (94sqmi), with an average elevation of 81.95m (268ft 10in)..
 Another perhaps more accurate estimate put the population of Kuala Lumpur in 1890 at 20,000. , Kuala Lumpur was administered by a corporation sole called the Federal Capital Commissioner from April 1, 1961, until it was awarded city status in 1972, after which executive power transferred to the Lord Mayor (Datuk Bandar). Kuala Lumpur first developed around 1857 as a town serving the tin mines of the region and served as the capital of Selangor from 1880 until 1978. Further, the city is home to the Kuala Lumpur Dragons, 2016 Champions of the ASEAN Basketball League. Trendy nightclubs, bars and lounges, such as Marini's on 57, Skybar at Traders Hotel, the Beach Club, Espanda, the Hakka Republic Wine Bar & Restaurant, Hard Rock Cafe, the Luna Bar, Nuovo, Rum Jungle, No Black Tie, the Thai Club, Zion Club, Zouk KL, Club Ky, Dragonfly KL and many others are located here. Apart from shopping complexes, Kuala Lumpur has designated numerous zones in the city to market locally manufactured products such as textiles, fabrics and handicrafts.
, During World War II, Kuala Lumpur was captured by the Imperial Japanese Army on 11 January 1942. , Early Kuala Lumpur was a small town that suffered from many social and political problems the buildings were made of wood and 'atap' (palm frond thatching).
 Some buildings such as the Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia and National Planetarium have been built to masquerade as a place of worship, complete with dome and minaret, when in fact they are places of science and knowledge.
By the time it became a municipality in 1948 it had expanded to 93km2 (36sqmi), and then to 243km2 (94sqmi) in 1974 as a Federal Territory.
Most of the country's largest companies have their headquarters here, and as of December 2007 and excluding Petronas, there are 14 companies that are listed in Forbes 2000 based in Kuala Lumpur..
Other important economic activities in the city are education and health services. This annual event draws the world's top riders and their prize horses to Malaysia. Protected by the Titiwangsa Range in the east and Indonesia's Sumatra Island in the west, Kuala Lumpur is sheltered from strong winds and has a tropical rainforest climate (Kppen climate classification Af), hot, humid and sunny, with abundant rainfall, especially during the northeast monsoon season from October to March. The buses operated on a commission basis, with service operators paid according to the fares they collected.  Another event hosted annually by the city is the Kuala Lumpur Fashion Week, which includes international brands and local designers.
 The process continued after Malayan independence with the growth of a largely Malay civil service, and later the implementation of the New Economic Policy which encouraged Malay participation in urban industries and business. The Merdeka Tournament is mainly held at Stadium Merdeka.  Some of these shophouses have made way for new developments but there are still many standing today in the Medan Pasar Besar (Old Market Square), Chinatown, Jalan Tuanku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Doraisamy, Bukit Bintang and Tengkat Tong Shin areas.
In 1974, Kuala Lumpur was split off from Selangor to form the first Federal Territory governed directly by the Malaysian federal government.
While Tamil is dominant amongst the local Indian population, other Indian languages spoken by minorities include Telugu, Malayalam, Punjabi, and Hindi.
The AFC Housecurrent headquarters of the Asian Football Confederationis built on a 4-acre (1.6ha) complex in the Kuala Lumpur suburb of Bukit Jalil. About 90 new stations are planned in this "wheel and spoke" concept, out of which 26 in the city centre will be underground.
Direct buses from KLIA to the city centre are plentiful (every 10 to 15 minutes during peak hours), air-conditioned and comfortable with fares ranging from RM 11 (roughly US$2.70) to RM 15 (roughly US$3.70). Apart from that, the Dow Jones & Company is keen to work with Bursa Malaysia to set up Islamic Exchange Trade Funds (ETFs), which would help raise Malaysia's profile in the Gulf.  The Minangkabaus were also significant socio-religious figures, for example Utsman bin Abdullah was the first kadi of Kuala Lumpur, as well as Muhammad Nur bin Ismail. , A census in 1891 of uncertain accuracy gave a figure of 43,796 inhabitants, 79% of whom were Chinese (71% of the Chinese were Hakka ), 14% Malay, and 6% Indian.
The National Art Gallery serves as a centre of excellence and is a trustee of the national art heritage. , List of Kuala Lumpur representatives in the Federal Parliament (Dewan Rakyat).
 Every part of the city is well connected with highways.
Malaysian English is a widely used. A few local films featured Kuala Lumpur during the historical era, such as 1975: Hati Malaya (2007), Petaling Streets Warrior (2011) and Tanda Putera (2013). Pavilion KL, one of the city's iconic shopping centre. The city serves as the cultural, financial, and economic centre of Malaysia.
 Beside Malay, there are a variety of languages spoken by people of Indonesian descent, such as Minangkabau and Javanese.
 The town, spurred on by tin-mining, started to develop around Old Market Square (Medan Pasar), with roads radiating out towards Ampang as well as Pudu and Batu (the destinations became the names of these roads: Ampang Road, Pudu Road, and Batu Road), where miners had also begun to settle in, and Petaling and Damansara.  Smoke from forest fires in nearby Sumatra and Kalimantan sometimes casts a haze over the region, and is a major source of pollution, along with open burning, motor vehicle emissions, and construction. , Rapid Bus began the first phase of the revamp of its bus network in January 2006, introducing 15 City Shuttle bus routes which serve major areas in the Central Business District (CBD) of Kuala Lumpur.
The gross domestic product (GDP) for Kuala Lumpur is estimated at RM73,536million in 2008 with an average annual growth rate of 5.9 percent. In 1980 the population of Kuala Lumpur had reached over a million, with 52% Chinese, 33% Malay, and 15% Indian. , The development of a rubber industry in Selangor fueled by the demand for car tyres in the early 20th century led to a boom, and the population of Kuala Lumpur increased from 30,000 in 1900 to 80,000 in 1920.
 In 2015, the Kuala Lumpur Street Circuit was constructed to host the Kuala Lumpur City Grand Prix motor racing event. However, increased usage of ridesharing services like Grab, MyCar and JomRides has resulted in a decrease in taxi use. , Kuala Lumpur ranks 70th in the world and second in Southeast Asia for Economist Intelligence Unit's Global Liveability Ranking and ninth in ASPAC and second in Southeast Asia for KPMG's Leading Technology Innovation Hub 2021. Yap Ah Loy allied himself with Tengku Kudin[ms] and the Hai San secret society, they fought against a rival secret society, Ghee Hin, whom allied themselves with Raja Mahdi. Abdul-Razzaq Lubis, 'Sutan Puasa: The Founder of Kuala Lumpur', Nelmawarni Bungo, Nordin Hussin; Merantau ke Kuala Lumpur: Tradisi merantau dan berdagang masyarakat Minang, 2011, Mohd Nizam Sahad, Che Zarrina binti Sa'ari; Sejarah Sistem Pendidikan Islam di Kuala Lumpur, Jurnal Al-Tamaddun Bil. A significant architect of the early period is Arthur Benison Hubback who designed a number of the colonial-era buildings including the Kuala Lumpur Railway Station and Jamek Mosque.
 Some have argued that Sungai Lumpur in fact extended down to the confluence and therefore the point where it joined the Klang River would be Kuala Lumpur, although this Sungai Lumpur is said to be another river joining the Klang River 1.5 kilometres (1 mile) upstream from the Gombak confluence, or perhaps located to the north of the Batu Caves area.  Leaders of the Chinese community were conferred the title of Kapitan Cina (Chinese headman) by the Malay chief, and Hiu Siew, the early Chinese trader, became the first Kapitan of Kuala Lumpur. It also suffered from a constant threat of flooding due to its location.  The administrative and judicial functions of the government were shifted from Kuala Lumpur to Putrajaya. Established in 1949, it is the oldest university in Malaysia, and one of the oldest in the region.
This system of appointing the mayor has been in place ever since the local government elections were suspended in 1970..
The first section of the MRT opened on 16 December 2016, and the network has since grown rapidly in accordance with Malaysia's aim of developing a comprehensive rail network as the backbone of the country's public transportation system. These systems were fully implemented by May 27, 2019.  KL Sentral was added on 16 April 2001 and served as the new transport hub of the Klang Valley Integrated Transit System. Kuala Lumpur was touted as one of the host cities for the Formula One World Championship from 1999 to 2017.  Kuala Lumpur was named World Book Capital 2020 by UNESCO.
A Sanitary Board created on 14 May 1890 was responsible for sanitation, road upkeep, street lighting, and other functions.
MICE tourism, which mainly encompasses conventions has expanded in recent years to become a vital component of the industry, and is expected to grow further once the Malaysian government's Economic Transformation Programme kicks in, and with the completion of a new 93,000 square meter-size MATRADE Centre in 2014.
The city's basketball supporters cheered Malaysia's national basketball team to a Final Four finish in 1985, the team's best performance to date.  A relatively young city compared with other Southeast Asian capitals such as Bangkok, Jakarta and Manila, most of Kuala Lumpur's notable colonial-era buildings were built toward the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The Apprentice Asia was launched on 22 May 2013.
It is also home to the Parliament of Malaysia, and the Istana Negara, the official residence of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (monarch of Malaysia).
 Another major dialect spoken is Hakka.
The resident orchestra is the Malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra (MPO), consisting of musicians from all over the world, and features regular concerts, chamber concerts and traditional cultural performances.
 Unlike the original line, which used the fixed-block signalling block system, the extension uses the communications-based train control (CBTC) signaling system. Between 1947 and 1957 the population of Malays in Kuala Lumpur increased from 12.5 to 15%, while the proportion of Chinese dropped. , Nevertheless, the London-based website, LondonCabs.co.uk has claimed that taxis in the city charge passengers high rates, refusing to turn on their meters and offering instead over-priced flat-rate fares, although other passengers refute such claims.
Every year during the Thaipusam celebration, a silver chariot carrying the statue of Lord Muruga together with his consort Valli and Teivayanni would be paraded through the city beginning at the temple all the way to Batu Caves in the neighboring Gombak, Selangor..  A significant component of the Malay population in Kuala Lumpur of this period consisted of Malays recruited by the British in 1880, mostly from rural Malacca, to establish a police force of 2300, many of whom brought their families.  The miners formed gangs and the gangs frequently fought in this period, particularly factions of Kuala Lumpur and Kanching, mainly over control of the best tin mines. Bahasa Malaysia is the principal language in Kuala Lumpur. , Books set in Kuala Lumpur include KL 24/7 by Ida M Rahim, Shireen Zainudin and Rizal Zainudin, My Life As a Fake by Peter Carey, and Democracy by Joan Didion.. Kuala Lumpur ceded from Selangor to be directly controlled by the central government, and it ceased to be capital of Selangor in 1978 after the city of Shah Alam was declared the new state capital.  Since the 1990s, the city has played host to many international sporting, political and cultural events including the 1998 Commonwealth Games and the 2017 Southeast Asian Games. The city also has numerous large private fitness centres run by Celebrity Fitness, Fitness First, True Fitness and major five-star hotels.
Despite efforts to promote public transport, utilisation rates are low, 16 percent of the population in 2006. , Bas Mini KL or Kuala Lumpur Mini-Bus Service was one of the oldest and popular Malaysia public bus service, having served Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley region. The slump lasted until late 1879, when rising prices for tin allowed the town to recover. The Chinese mainly settled around the commercial centre of Market Square. Kuala Lumpur has a comprehensive road network with more transportation development planned. , Kuala Lumpur means "muddy confluence" in Malay; Kuala is the point where two rivers join or an estuary, and lumpur means "mud".  Raja Asal and Sutan Puasa switched sides to Raja Mahdi, and Kuala Lumpur was captured in 1872 and burnt to the ground. KLIA2 is served by an extension of the KLIA Ekspres and by a free shuttle bus service from KLIA.  Kuala Lumpur is also the centre of the wider Klang Valley metropolitan area covering Petaling Jaya, Klang, Subang Jaya, Puchong, Shah Alam, and Gombak, with an estimated metropolitan population of 7.25million as of 2017[update].
 Since the take over from Intrakota Komposit Sdn Bhd, Prasarana Malaysia has redrawn the entire bus network of Kuala Lumpur and the Klang Valley metropolitan area to increase passenger numbers and improve Kuala Lumpur's public transport system. An ad hoc alliance between the Malay UMNO and Chinese MCA party candidates won a majority of the seats, and this led to the formation of the Alliance Party (later the Barisan Nasional). Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism are practised mainly among the Chinese. Kuala Lumpur residents are generally literate in English, with a large proportion adopting it as their first language. Kuala Lumpur is mentioned in many songs by local Malaysian artists, such as "Keroncong Kuala Lumpur'" by P. Ramlee, "Kuala Lumpur, Ibu Kota" by Saloma, "Chow Kit Road" by Sudirman Arshad, "Senyumlah Kuala Lumpur" by Alleycats, "Streets of Kuala Lumpur" by Murkyway, "K.L." Temperatures tend to remain constant. The Malays, and later Indian Chettiars and Muslims, resided in the Java Street area, now Jalan Tun Perak. Kuala Lumpur is the most populous city in Malaysia, with a population of 1.98million in the city proper as of 2020[update]. Numerous public and private medical specialist centres and hospitals in the city offer general health services, and a wide range of specialist surgery and treatment that caters to locals and tourists. Kuala Lumpur has a craft complex coupled with a museum that displays a variety of textile, ceramic, metal craft and weaved products.
Kuala Lumpur's central business district today has shifted to the Kuala Lumpur city centre (KLCC) where many new and tall buildings with modern and postmodern architecture fill the skyline.
The riots caused the deaths of 196 people, according to official figures, and led to major changes in the country's economic policy to promote and prioritise Malay economic development over that of other ethnicities. The KTM Komuter, a commuter rail service, was introduced in 1995 as the first rail transit system to provide local rail services in Kuala Lumpur and the surrounding Klang Valley suburban areas.
As of 5 July 2013, the market capitalisation stood at US$505.67billion..
The town became embroiled in the Selangor Civil War in part over control of revenue from the tin mines. It is best known as one of the red-light districts in Kuala Lumpur. Kuala Lumpur's eleven parliamentary constituencies, with estimated population and percentage of the total, are congruent with administrative subdivisions under the authority of the Kuala Lumpur City Hall authority. The mini-bus service was from 23 September 1975 and discontinued on 1 July 1998, to be replaced by the Intrakota bus service and later, Rapid Bus in 2005.  Residents of the city are colloquially known as KLites.  In late 1881, the town was severely flooded, after a fire that had destroyed the entire town in January.
Bukit Nanas, in the heart of the city centre, is one of the oldest virgin forests in the world within a city. Chinese miners were involved in tin mining up the Selangor River in the 1840s about 16 kilometres (10 miles) north of present-day Kuala Lumpur, and Mandailing Sumatrans led by Raja Asal[ms] and Sutan Puasa were also involved in tin mining and trade in the Ulu Klang region before 1860, and Sumatrans may have settled in the upper reaches of Klang River in the first quarter of the 19th century, or possibly earlier. Kuala Lumpur has several golf courses including the Kuala Lumpur Golf and Country Club (KLGCC) and the Malaysia Civil Service Golf Club in Kiara and the Berjaya Golf Course at Bukit Jalil.  The city houses three of the world's ten largest shopping malls.
 The so-called 13 May Incident included violent conflicts between members of the Malay and the Chinese communities, the result of Malaysian dissatisfaction with their socio-political status.  The Minangkabaus of Sumatra became another important group who traded and established tobacco plantations in the area.  Kuala Lumpur was the furthest point up the Klang River to which supplies could conveniently be brought by boat, and therefore became a collection and dispersal point serving the tin mines. The majority of the Indian population identify as Hindus (81.1%), with a significant minorities of identifying as Christians (7.8%), Muslims (4.9%) and Buddhists (2.1%).  The third Chinese Kapitan of Kuala Lumpur, Yap Ah Loy, was appointed in 1868. Among the processes shown are pottery making, intricate wood carving, silver-smithing, weaving songket cloth, stamping batik patterns on cloth, and boat-making.
 The worst rioting on record in Malaysia, however, occurred on 13 May 1969, when race riots broke out in Kuala Lumpur. These buildings were designed in a number of styles Mughal/Moorish Revival, Mock Tudor, Neo-Gothic or Grecian-Spanish style or architecture. KL Grand Prix CSI 5*, a five-star international showjumping equestrian event, is held annually in the city. Television series set in Kuala Lumpur include A Tale of 2 Cities (starring Rui En and Joanne Peh).  The service sector, comprising finance, insurance, real estate, business services, wholesale and retail trade, restaurants and hotels, transport, storage and communication, utilities, personal services and government services form the largest component of employment, representing about 83.0 percent of the total. Kuala Lumpur (Malaysian pronunciation:[kual, -a lumpo(r), -(r)]), officially the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur (Malay: Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur) and colloquially referred to as KL, is a federal territory and the capital city of Malaysia.
 Most were scrapped and replaced by Protons, but there are still a large number of these models running the roads. A few notable local films featured Kuala Lumpur as background location, such as Masam-masam Manis (1965), Keluarga Si Comat (1973), Jiwa Remaja (1976), Abang (1981), Matinya Seorang Patriot (1984), Kembara Seniman Jalanan (1986), Orang Kampung Otak Kimia (1988), Hati Bukan Kristal (1990), Mat Som (1990), Mira Edora (1990), Femina (1993), Maria Mariana (1996), Hanya Kawan (1997), KLU (1999), Soal Hati (2000), KL Menjerit (2002), Laila Isabella (2003), Gangster (2005), Gol & Gincu (2005), Remp-it (2006), Cinta (2006), Anak Halal (2007) Evolusi KL Drift (2008), Adnan Sempit (2010), KL Gangster (2011), Kepong Gangster (2012), Lagenda Budak Setan 2: Katerina (2012) and Kolumpo (2013).