animal masculine or feminine

The Human Development Report Office proposed both a Gender-related Development Index (GDI) and the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) as means of monitoring international progress in the development of women's capabilities [35]. Before we start, please note that the word animal can either be a noun or an adjective.

Referring to this person/character makes more sense and will limit inconsistencies. Suitable collaborators volunteered in 21 countries worldwide, but those in 9 countries dropped out over the course of the project, leaving 12 countries as a convenience sample. All analyses were conducted using the statistical packages Minitab 15 and SPSS 15. Differences between males and females in mean acceptability of issues relating to indices for Animal Welfare, Animal Rights, Unnatural Practices on Animals, Killing Animals, Animals in Experiments, Wildlife, Using Animals as Spiritual Symbols. Subscribe to not miss out on the French resources I'm making for youand with you! Dependence and Independence: A Cross-National Analysis of Gender Inequality and Gender Attitudes. They were less likely to avoid eggs, milk and seafood than male students. The males dont lay eggs! Sometimes, in addition to the-eending, there are some unexpected spelling changes in the feminine, as inun loup/une louve(male/female wolf): Par exemple,un loupdonne -une louve. Using the feminine form makes it more apparent that your reason/concern is that you dont want your cat / dog to get pregnant because it is a female (therefore it is relevant to give this precision). Herzog H.A. James G. Doherty, general curator, The Wildlife Conservation Society. In this case, you will need to memorize the gender of the animal along with its name as there is no logic or way of guessing. It has seven black dots. Ive created French Your Way to provide you with different ways to learn French : podcasts, worksheets, articles, French lessons and much more. If gender is not important or unknown, we tend to use the generic masculine, like the couple does in the video below: Premirement,le chatmet des poils partout. Elle (= meaning that ladybug) a sept points noirs. Relationship between the Gender Empowerment Measure, and its components of Political participation, Senior workplace roles and Economic participation, and the ratio of female to male scores for the indices for Animal Welfare, Animal Rights, Unnatural Practices on Animals, Killing Animals, Animals in Experiments, Wildlife, Using Animals as Spiritual Symbols and World Issues for each country.

Oh, il est sur la table ! Caption 23,Les zooriginaux - La jacta est - Part 1. [19] suggests that this may be because of the relational role of women in society, having primary responsibility for nurturing, empathy and care towards others. This analysis identified factors that represented views on Animal Welfare, Animal Rights, Unnatural Practices on Animals, Killing Animals, Animals in Experimentation, Wildlife and Animals as Spiritual Symbols. Now, feel free to continue Bruces story in the comment section below!

Gender empowerment was estimated for each country using the Gender Empowerment Measure designed by the United Nations. These variables were all normally distributed by the Anderson-Darling test.

So, they are always referred to by il / elle (he / she) without ambiguity. une girafe) but if I am talking about a male girafe, can I say un girafe? Caption 25,Contes de fes - Le chat bott - Part 1. Peek et al. A survey by Baxter and Kane [11] conducted in five countries (USA, Australia, Canada, Norway and Sweden) found that women with high social, economic and interpersonal dependence on men had attitudes more similar to men. The word for "lion" follows the same pattern as, On the other hand, some animal nouns ending in. (Why? Hyers L.L. Neumark-Sztainer D., Story M., Resnich M.D., Blum R.W. Phillips C.J.C., Izmirli S., Aldavood S.J., Alonso M., Choe B.I., Hanlon A., Handziska A., Illmannov G., Keeling L., Kennedy M., Lee G.H., Lund V., Mejdell C., Pelagic V.R., Rehn T. Students' Attitudes to Animal Welfare and Rights in Europe and Asia. The results demonstrate that females have greater concern for animal welfare and rights than males, and that this is more likely to be expressed in countries where females are relatively empowered, suggesting that emancipated female empathy operates across countries as well as at a local level. Did you see?

Paul E.S., Podberscek A.L. 300+ List of Adverbs of Manner PDF Definition and Infographics. Remember that not all animal names have a masculine and feminine counterpart,but only a single grammatical gender just like nouns referring to objects, which will be the topic of our next lesson. Impress your friends at trivia night with the knowledge that a male rabbit is called a buck! The masculine and feminine gender of animals: Many English students neglect the male and female characteristics of animals. It is often not important to specify the sex of the animal (see the first sentence of each example, sentence a). However, it is unwise to read too much into one point on the graph, i.e., one country. For both males and females animal protection was ranked the second most important World Issue, behind environmental protection. One area in which difficulties could potentially be experienced was translation as it was impossible with so many countries to arrange back-translation, as is usually advocated for such cross-cultural research [17,18]. Ex.1: un singe (= a monkey), un perroquet (= a parrot), un hippocampe (= a seahorse) are masculine nouns.

b. Cest lhippocampe male qui porte les ufs. In English, we are back to using it, to refer to a simple ladybug, not a person. Dd and Read More , Podcast: Play in new window | Download (7.7MB), By popular demand, I have recorded a series of episodes to help you learn or recognise common French slang expressions. Bull, Boar, ox, etc. CZ = Czech Republic, GB = Great Britain, IR = Iran, IE = Ireland, KR = South Korea, MK = Macedonia, NO = Norway, ES = Spain, SE = Sweden. Available online: Folbre N. Measuring Care: Gender, Empowerment, and the Care Economy.

Greater attributed sentience for cats in females than males is probably because cats tend to be preferred by females and dogs by males, and cats are seen as having more feminine characteristics, with dogs displaying masculine characteristics of activity, dominance, aggression [24]. Some rodents are feminine, as inune souris(a mouse), while others are masculine, as inun cureuil(a squirrel).

Click on the arrows to change the translation direction. Elphant, lphante (male elephant, female elephant) will also be available for a limited time. A survey of Baxter and Kane [11] which was conducted in the USA, Australia, Canada, Norway and Sweden, demonstrated that men hold less egalitarian gender role attitudes than do women. In fact, most nouns referring to animals dont havefeminine and masculine versionsthey only come in one gender,assigned arbitrarily regardless of the sex of the animal. In the same way, use oeufs de cane(specifically the female duck) for duck eggs and not oeufs de canard (the generic name.)

-"Une nesse" [a jenny]. Ex1: Masculine noun hippocampe (= seahorse) : Responses to the 43 Animal Issues have been previously subjected to a factor analysis [13] to reduce the number of output variables. Note that whenever you double a final consonant, the normally silent consonant (like the-ninchien) becomes pronounced, as you can hear in the example below: Certains noms masculins vont doubler leur consonne finale. Relationship between gender (F = female, M = male) and country in indices for Animal Welfare, Animal Rights, Unnatural Practices on Animals, Killing Animals, Animals in Experiments, Wildlife, Using Animals as Spiritual Symbols.

The components that were significantly correlated for each factor were examined, and a summary title was provided for each factor, which was changed from those originally proposed by Meng [13] to increase clarity. In the present study, female were also more likely than males to avoid meat, particularly the red meats, beef, lamb and to some extent pork. Because our survey asked students to rank species by sentience, if females attributed greater sentience to human infants and cats, other species had to fall in rank. High values mean greater concern for animals.

The overall order of World Issues for females (with mean rank and SED mean) was environmental protection (6.6 + 0.03) > animal protection (6.4 + 0.04) > sustainable development (6.1 + 0.03) > rights of women (5.9 + 0.04) > reducing poverty (5.9 + 0.04) peace and security (5.9 + 0.03) > racial equality (5.9 + 0.04) > professional ethics (5.7 + 0.04) > equality for LGBT (5.0 + 0.06) > capital punishment (4.9 + 0.06) > genetic engineering (4.5 + 0.05) > human euthanasia (4.4 + 0.06) > human cloning (3.7 + 0.07). Caption 41,Manon et Simon - Le masculin et le fminin. There were differences between males and females in the avoidance of animal products (Table 7). Etun chatdonneune chatte, deux "t", "e". Thirteen questions were asked concerning major world social issues, and students were asked to give their opinion about how important each was, on a scale of 1, not important, to 7, extremely important [13]. Ratio of female to male (F/M) scores on the Animal Rights Index to the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM). Need a reference? Notice: The generic name is strictly either masculine or feminine, as mentioned at the start of this article. However, many animals have separate names for male and female specimens, as in English. chienne = female dog ; bitch, So, if you are worried about people with a dirty mind, my advice would be not using them, or at least not using them along with a possessive article (i.e my, your, etc) in order to avoid an awkward/unfortunate combination.

No Gender Empowerment Measure values were available for China and Serbia, or for Serbia for Income, therefore data for these countries were omitted for the specific regressions. Because of the scale and breadth of the survey, co-ordination of collaborators' activities assumed a major importance. Your email address will not be published. Ratio of female to male (F/M) scores on the Animal Welfare Index2 to the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM). Heleski et al. An official website of the United States government. This was evident in their eating preferences, with more females avoiding meat because of the possible impact on their health.

Beyond Scarcity: Power, Poverty and the Global Water Crisis. Captions 27-30,Nader Fakhry - la recherche des derniers lphants - Part 1. Therefore it is possible that in our survey the much greater pet ownership by females than males was a driving force behind their attitude to animal welfare and rights.

In our survey animal welfare was clearly a consideration for both male and female students in food choices. a. Un hippocampe nage la verticale. The method of extraction of factors was by principal components analysis with Varimax rotation. Females were more likely to avoid meat than males, and the proportion of female vegetarians was three times that of males. We can only use the feminine form here because coccinelle is the only referent in the sentence. For example, some countries have a long history of religious instruction supporting both male dominance in society and the use of animals, whereas others do not. Because binary logistic regression and ANOVA gave similar and more discriminating results than Chi square, and the data either approximated a normal distribution or could be manipulated to a normal distribution, ANOVA was selected because of its flexibility for modelling the data. International Society for Applied Ethology, for volunteer academic collaborators to organize the survey in their country. a. Un renard sort du bois. I understand that animals are generally masculine and feminine (eg. In English, we will also use he to refer to Bruce, as a person. For example, some insects, likeune mouche(a fly), are always feminine. Pifer L., Shimizu K., Pifer R. Public Attitudes Toward Animal Research: Some International Comparisons. Phillips C.J.C., McCullough S. Student Attitudes on Animal Sentience and Use of Animals in Society. sharing sensitive information, make sure youre on a federal b. There was also a significant interaction between gender and year of study, with the female students maintaining relatively high levels of empathy throughout the three years, whereas the male students showed lower levels of empathy in their later years [2]. Schlitt H.J., Brunkhorst R., Haverich A., Raab R. Attitude of Patients toward Transplantation of Xenogeneic Organs. ); es.uls.hmh@nheR.eserehT (T.R. Un chiendonne -une chienne, deux "n", "e". O est le tlphone? The similarity between males and females in our survey in attitude to experimentation with animals may derive from the greater concern that female students had for their health, compared with males. and transmitted securely. Lets write the first words of the story : Bruce is a ladybug. In short, there are diverse ways to feminize an animal noun. Planchon Y.A., Templer D.I. Baxter J., Kane E.W. This acceptance of the use of animals for human benefit appears to be greater in males, as they also have less concern about accepting xenografts from animals, which are mainly pigs [33]. According to the 2005 Eurobarometer [28], males rated the welfare and protection status of pigs and dairy cows more positively than female, whereas they were similar for laying hens. We tested this theory of female empowered empathy internationally in a survey of female and male students' attitudes towards use of animals, conducted in 11 Eurasian countries: China, Czech Republic, Great Britain, Iran, Ireland, South Korea, Macedonia, Norway, Serbia, Spain and Sweden. In the present study, females were found to be more sensitive to animal protection, professional ethics, environmental protection, racial equality, equality for LGBT, human euthanasia, rights of women and peace and security than males. Note: because these words are adjectives, make sure they come after the noun in French and not before. Gender did not influence the students' beliefs about the degree of sentience of a range of animal species. Only gender is considered in this paper. (= Where is the phone? Perrine R.M., Osbourne H.L. -L, c'est une femelle. government site. He caught a nice fatrabbitthere and put it in his purse. The author actually chose to match the gender of the animal name with the gender of the animal character (the ladybug is a girl because coccinelle in French is feminine; the butterfly is a boy because papillon in French is masculine, etc). Attitudes of Consumers Towards the Welfare of Farmed Animals. Brush up on your geography and finally learn what countries are in Eastern Europe with our maps. 2022 Sandbox Netwrks Inc. All rights reserved. More females responded positively to this question (49%) than males (38%). However, there was a gender country interaction for all of the animal indices, except Killing Animals and Animals as Spiritual Symbols, indicating that there were significant differences between genders in some countries (Table 3). Kruse [21] suggests that males support a primarily Darwinian view of animals, in which the natural world is exploited and controlled, whereas females have primarily a Romantic view of animals, with greater affection for them and concern for their ethical treatment. Je ne peux pas manger sur cette table, elle nest pas propre ! (Id rather not let my female cat / dog out so that they dont meet/interact with other cats/dogs. Williams V.M., Dacre I.T., Elliott M. Public Attitudes in New Zealand towards the Use of Animals for Research, Testing and Teaching Purposes. Here is another example of a noun that changes spelling and pronunciation in the feminine form. In a study by Serpell [6], female veterinary students displayed greater concern for possible instances of animal suffering than males, and prior experience with different animals, as well as rural background and farm experience, were also associated with attitude differences. (These books are also available with audio CDs.) Its a female cat.).

If they agreed to take part in the survey, the students were asked to give their e-mail address to the volunteer. a. I even get confused when referring to my dogs. I recently received a very interesting and unusual question that I had never been asked before. In all cases except Norway and Sweden, where access to entire student populations by e-mail was possible, collaborators organized a team of student volunteers in a sample of universities in their country. The site is secure. The survey format and content was discussed and agreed by all collaborators, and the survey was then translated by the collaborators into the native language, who were most familiar with the animal welfare terminology used. Mean values (SE) for females and males together were as follows: human infant 10.7 0.043 > chimpanzee 9.7 0.040 > dog 9.5 0.030 > Dolphin 8.6 0.044 > Cat 7.7 0.035 > Horse 7.2 0.034 > Cattle 5.5 0.034 > Pig 5.2 0.039 > Rat 4.8 0.045 > Chicken 3.8 0.032 > Octopus 2.7 0.038 > Fish 2.6 0.039. Some animals have specific, distinctive names to describe either the male or the female individual: You will find this in English too: a sheep is the generic name (called mouton in French) ; the male can be called a ram (blier) and the female an ewe (brebis). (= The praying mantis is a long green insect.)

As well as animal welfare, we found a similar increase in concern for animal rights by females, compared with males. Accessibility The 43 animal issues were originally based on the major concerns about our use of animals. As the answer covers a few different areas, I was immediately inspired to write an article and share it with you.

Females rated the rights of women as a much more important issue than males did (Table 9). In spite of the limitations of GEM; we favoured it because it reflects a higher level of gender empowerment and is positively associated with a more equal division of labour in the household [36]. 1 + 0.06) > human cloning (3.7 + 0.07). It is also possible that women are more anthropomorphic than men and bestow humanlike qualities more easily on mammals that are phylogenetically more similar to humans, deterring them from eating these animals more than less similar animals, such as hens. (= It is the male seahorse which carries the eggs. As inun prince(a prince) anduneprincesse(a princess), some animal nouns take the suffix-essein the feminine: "Un ne" [a donkey]? He particularly enjoys the scent of strawberries Seventy-two percent of students reported that their interactions with animals (especially pets) had strongly influenced the development of their values [6]. Like all nouns, animal names are strictly masculine or feminine when they refer to the generic name of the species. An Overview of Surveys on How People View Animal Experimentation: Some Factors that May Influence the Outcome. (Translation of animal from the GLOBAL French-English Dictionary 2018 K Dictionaries Ltd), (Translation of animal from the PASSWORD French-English Dictionary 2014 K Dictionaries Ltd), a clever action in a game or other situation that is intended to achieve an advantage and usually involves taking a risk, Keeping an open mind and opening your heart: useful phrases with open. On a side note, you may want to exercise caution when using the wordschatteandchienne, as they can both be offensive terms referring to women. The dependence of women on men in other countries encourages them to adopt masculine attitudes [11], which may explain why attitudes to animal issues were least similar for students in Sweden, Norway and Great Britain. Learn more There were no countries or indices where males had significantly greater scores than females. We surveyed university students in 11 Eurasian countries for their attitudes to animals, using an internet-based questionnaire to which 1,902 female and 1,530 male student responded from 102 universities. Female students have greater concern for animal welfare and rights than males, especially in countries where there is a low level of dependence of women on men. In this paper we report only the influence of gender on animal and world issues, the effects of country on food consumption and on animal/world issues being reported elsewhere (respectively, [14,15]). Veterinary Education and Students' Attitudes towards Animal Welfare. Adolescent Vegetarians. Nouns referring to animals work in a comparable way to those referring to people. Copyright 2022 GrammarVocab | Powered by Astra WordPress Theme. about navigating our updated article layout. Ex1: Tlphone is a masculine noun. The latter is derived from the masculine form in the usual/typical way (like many adjectives, or names of occupation for instance), i.e simply by adding an _e for the feminine (and sometimes doubling the last consonant), Ex:

8600 Rockville Pike Relationships between measures of female empowerment and the female to male ratio of responses in the indices were examined. The questions were chosen by the project team, including country collaborators, to be of international, not regional concern, and to be mutually exclusive. According to a survey of Prokop and Tunnicliffe [27], girls were less favourably inclined than boys to animals that may pose a threat, danger or disease risk to them, which may incline them towards cats and away from pigs that are perceived to pose a disease risk. Heleski C.R., Mertig A.G., Zanella A. Assessing Attitudes toward Farm Animal Welfare: A National Survey of Animal Science Faculty Members. I.e.

The increased concern of women contributes towards, but is not the main driver for, greater avoidance of meat, especially red meat. Imagine that I am writing a story with my children about une coccinelle but the coccinelle is a male whose name is Bruce. sow, cow, hen, etc. [8] found that women were more opposed to use of animal in research than men in 15 nations. Patriarchal domination was recommended as an alternative influence and suitable subject for future study [20]. 2. ), Ex2: Table is a feminine noun. Learn about one of the world's oldest and most popular religions. There are actually three ways of doing this, but first we must wonder how relevant it is to specify the gender of the animal. In another survey, the use of animals in research was more opposed by women than men across a range of countries, including Great Britain, USA, Japan, France and Germany [8]. Each concern was represented by approximately five questions. Id love your insight on this!!!. Download Masculine and Feminine Gender of Animals list, Your email address will not be published. Ex.2 : une girafe (=a giraffe), une coccinelle (= a ladybird), une poule (= a hen / chick) are feminine nouns. But, what happens if we want to write a story featuring a male ladybug (coccinelle, feminine) called Bruce? Masculine Gender denotes a male living thing. A survey conducted in New Zealand also found that females were more concerned about the use of animals in research, testing and teaching than males [22]. In total responses were received from students at 103 universities in the main survey, with the target number of respondents in each country being related to the population. Another potential limitation of the study was that it utilised student respondents, who may vary between countries in their representativeness of the general population. A small proportion of students cited religious instruction as the reason, and most were males. Food avoidance and the reasons for it in male and female students. In a study by Paul and Podberscek [2], female students rated themselves as having significantly higher levels of emotional empathy with animals than did the male students. Cest une chatte / Cest une femelle. (My cat is very affectionate. These are (1) the use of animals; (2) animal integrity; (3) killing animals; (4) animal welfare; (5) experimentation on animals; (6) changes in animal genotypes; (7) animals and the environment; (8) societal attitudes towards animals. Others found that females tend to characterise meat and meat-eating experiences negatively, and red meat-eating is more common among males than females [31,32]. There were significant relationships between GEM and the ratio of female to male scores on the Animal Welfare, Animal Rights and Animal Experimentation indices, with the strongest relationship being with the Animal Rights Index (Table 5). Learn more about the world with our collection of regional and country maps. Female students (n = 1894) had approximately 50% more years of pet keeping (0.45) than males (n = 1524) (0.30), (SED 0.012, P < 0.001). If you have a cat or a dog, you will also tend to use the generic name chat or chien (both masculine words) and therefore not systematically specify when your pet friend is a female. We received the assistance of UQ Gatton's statistical advisor, Allan Lisle, and are also grateful to Anna Olsson from Portugal, who was unable to return enough respondents to be included in the survey, and Hans Petter Kjaestad from Norway for his assistance. When there is no existing feminine form or separate word, that is to say most of the time, simply use the adjective mle or femelle to indicate the gender of the animal. Beteta H.C. What is Missing in Measures of Women's Empowerment? Effects of Having Pets at Home on Children's Attitudes toward Popular and Unpopular Animals. The GEM has been criticised for measuring inequality mainly among the most educated and economically advantaged and failing to include important non-economic dimensions of decision-making power, both at the household level and over women's own bodies and sexuality [37]. It shows typical male and female behavious during the mating dance and as such, it is a good example of the ways to differentiate the males and the females in each species. Previous research has demonstrated that in households where the male partner is more dominant, there is convergence in male and female attitudes towards animals, whereas if the female partner is empowered they exhibit greater empathy towards animals than the male partner. A goldmine for your animal-related vocab! Expressed as a rank order, World Issues were similar for male and female students, except that females elevated the rights of women from 8th to 4th place. Despite the presence ofa female pantherright next door Caption 20,Le Journal - Espces en voie de disparition.

Et l on voit dj si c'estune vacheou des taureaux [sic:un taureau]? Linear regression of the three different GEM components: (1) Politic participation (proportion of women in the Lower or Single House in parliament), (2) Senior workplace roles (Income, ratio of female to male GDP per capita), and (3) Economic participation (proportion of women in senior positions: legislators, senior officials, managers, professional workers and technical workers) on the relevant indices was performed for each country. You may download a pdf file of this full lesson at the bottom of this post. (Dont ask me why) Following an initial analysis the residual data distribution was examined and where necessary transformed. The word for "lion" follows the same pattern aschien/chienne: Tu as vu? Received 2010 Dec 7; Accepted 2010 Dec 8. Many of them, however, are exclusively masculine or feminine, as we'll see in this lesson. Our regression models of GEM and F/M ratio of responses on the Animal Welfare and Rights Indices showed that Ireland was an outlier, but the sample was very small, less than any other country. Kruse C.R. This gender difference in cat appreciation may also be evidenced by the tendency of females towards greater grief after cat death [25] and greater willingness of female French veterinarians to provide analgesia to cats [26], although these were both also evident for dogs. (= The female praying mantis often eats the male praying mantis during mating. Wells and Hepper [1] found that adult males disagreed less with the use of animals by humans than adult females, and women opposed medical testing of animals more strongly than men. Peek C.W., Bell N.J., Dunham C.C. It becomes relevant when we want to describe a specific behaviour in the male or female individual of the species (such as in sentence b of each of the above examples).

The overall order of World Issues for males (and mean rank and SED mean) was environmental protection (6.5 + 0.03) > animal protection (6.2 + 0.04) > sustainable development (6.0 + 0.03) > reducing poverty (5.9 + 0.04) > peace and security (5.8 + 0.03) > racial equality (5.7 + 0.04) > professional ethics (5.5 + 0.04) > rights of women (5.1 + 0.04) > capital punishment (4.8 + 0.06) > equality for LGBT (4.7 + 0.06) > genetic engineering (4. PMC legacy view Not sure about the geography of the middle east? My mind simply cannot adjust to it! Your pet could be male or female; it is unspecified. A total of 3,432 responses (1,902 female and 1,530 males) were obtained from an estimated 16,700 students that provided their e-mail addresses in 103 universities (Table 1).