a conformal map projection quizlet


Albers Equal-area Conic (AEC) and Lambert Conformal Conic (LCC). A map projection where the Earth's surface is projected onto a tangent or secant cone, which is then cut from apex to base and laid flat. have straight parallels at right angles to a central meridian. What kind of projection can we clearly see this issue? The normal aspect will either be equatorial or polar, depending on the developable surface. How is a verbal map scale similar to a fractional map scale? A projection that preserves the correct shapes of small areas. A map projection where the Earth's surface is projected onto a tangent or secant cylinder, which is then cut lengthwise and laid flat.

With WAAS, the GPS units achieve, a position of accuracy of 3 meters (about 10 feet) about 95% of the time, What is the Continuously Operating GPS Reference Stations (CORS), They are permanently installed GPS receiving stations managed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations. \text{ } & \text{J} & \text{F} & \text{M} & \text{A} & \text{M} & \text{J} & \text{J} & \text{A} & \text{S} & \text{O} & \text{N} & \text{D} & \text{Year}\\ they retain the map characteristic of a common scale that allows precise measurement of distances, Orthophoto maps are particularly useful in flat lying coastal areas because they can show, subtle topographic detail in areas of very low relief, such as marshlands. What are the two most common conic projections? This parallel that coincides with the circle of tangency becomes known as, distortions are least in the vicinity of the circle of tangency and increases progressively as we get farther away, regions of east/west orientation in the midlatitudes. $$ Know the wavelength sizes of different types of light energy, which are used in remote sensing, and be able to draw it if asked. c. It is a mixture. Would you describe this as a rural area, a suburban area, or a city? Conformal projections are typically used in: Write your answer to each part clearly. Parallels are horizontal lines with meridians equally spaced. What projection does the gnomonic map projection fit under? What is a compromise projection? Which of the following is an abiotic component? The Mercator projection was created in _____ and is till the go to for many, most famous map, a conformal map projection designed to facilitate oceanic navigation. obtained by projecting the markings of a center lit globe onto a cone wrapped tangent to, or intersecting, a portion of the globe. Why are equivalent map projections desirable? A map projection where every part, as well as the whole, has the same area as the corresponding part on the Earth, at the same reduced scale. This allows what to happen to the shapes on the maps? a projection that maintains a balance between distortions of shape, area, distance and direction, rather than perfectly preserving one geometric property at the expense of others. The scale will have to change from one region to another. What does the translation from a three-dimensional spherical surface to a two-dimensional flat surface change? Alaska, for example, appears much larger on this type of map than it does on a globe. Even the simplest GPS units determine position to within, What can increase GPS accuracy when _____ ____ ________ _____ is employed, increase the accuracy of instrument-based flight approaches for airplanes, Several dozen ground based station across North America monitor GPS signals fro the satellites and then generate a correction message that is transmitted to the GPS units. What is the best way to show the Earth as a whole, accurately convey's the spherical shape of the Earth as well as show without distortion, the spatial relationships of Earth's surface, while maintaining correct size, shape, distance, and direction relationships of features around the planet, constructed at a very small scale and can't show much detail, a flat representation of Earth, shown reduced in size with only selected features or data showing, what is where: distance, direction, size, shape in horizontal, or two dimensional, spatial relationships, a map with a theme. Meridians curve toward the poles. a. What is the area of least distortion? Should identity the area covered and provide some indication of content. Select the best description of air. Used for the long term monitoring of slight changes in the ground and surface caused by lithospheric plate movement or the bulging of magma below a volcano, earthquake forecasting, ocean floor mapping, volcano monitoring and a variety of other mapping projects, collecting data, damage assessment following natural disasters as floods and hurricanes, used by workers to catalog items found in the enormous heaps of rubble following the WTC disaster 9/11/01, refers to any measurement of acquisition of info by a recording device that is not in physical contact with the object under study, gather data, produce images that provide communications, global positioning, weather data, and a variety of other info for a wide range of commercial and scientific applications. What are parallels? All great circles appear as straight lines on this projection, so that the shortest distance between two points is a straight line. the size of an area must often be considerably distorted to depict proper shape. It does not maintain completely accurate area, shape, distance, or direction, but it minimizes errors in each. map projections mercator quizlet maps a navigator first plots the shortest distance between origin and destination on a map projection in which great circles are shown as straight lines and then transfers them to a Mercator projection with straight line loxodromes. What are they used for? Isoline is a generic term that refers to, any line that joins points of equal value of something, Some isolines represent tangible surfaces, such as, the elevation contour lines on a topographic map, Some isolines represent intangible features such as, temperature and precipitation, and some express relative values such as ratios or proportions. (rounded), Projection that attempts to balance several possible projection errors. \text{Temp}{ \left(^{\circ} \mathrm{C}\right)} & \text{27.6} & \text{27.1} & \text{27.6} & \text{27.5} & \text{26.6} & \text{25.4} & \text{24.5} & \text{25.1} & \text{25.1} & \text{25.3} & \text{26.4} & \text{26.5} & \text{25.8}\\ How is natural selection an example of evolution? Which process has the greatest role in transferring carbon? latitude and longitude), on a flattened map, they are described using cartesian coordinates, with a unit of length (meter). Choose the best answer. obtained by projecting the markings of a center-lit globe onto a flat piece of paper that is tangent to the globe at one point, usually the north or south pole, or some point on the equator. If normal is equatorial, transverse is polar and vice versa. as camouflage detection because it was able to discriminate between living vegetation and the vegetation used to hide objects during the war, middle or far infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum, conventional digital cameras or traditional photographic film, measures the radiant temp of objects and may be carried out either day or night, showing diurnal temp differences between land and water, between bedrock and alluvium, for studying thermal water pollution, for detecting forest fires, The greatest use for thermal IR scanning systems has been, meteorological satellites and weather forecasting, Today, most sophisticated remote sensing satellites are, Multispectral instruments detect and record, many bands of the electromagnetic spectrum simultaneously, Although traditional photographic film was sensitive to only a narrow band of visible radiation, a satellite equipped with a multiband instrument images the surface of the earth, in several spectrum regions at once - visible light, near infrared, middle infrared, and thermal infrared - each useful for different applications, The digital multispectral satellite image is conveyed through, a matric of numbers, each representing a single value for a specific pixel and band, The data from the digital multispectral satellite image is, stored in the satellite, eventually transmitted to an Earth receiving station, numerically processed by a computer, and produced as a set of grey values and/or colors on a screen or hard copy printout, Early NASA space missions used multiband photography obtained through mulitcamera arrays. (it is an equidistant projection). A map projection that transforms points from a spheroid or sphere onto a tangent or secant plane. A conformal map projection preserves ___? What if we have a map that wants to emphasize oceans? Distortion of other properties increases away from the center point. Why doesn't Earth simply fall into the sun? }{ 80^{\circ} \mathrm{W}}\\ The gnomonic projection is useful in navigation. A species that has a disproportionately large effect on community structure is known as (blank). A projection whose surface touches the globe's without piercing it. (2) Gold has a glassy luster. However, many environmental scientists are more concerned with the potential effects of the plants on the ecology of land surrounding farms. What is an azimuthal or zenithual projection? (c) For the past 130 years, average global surface temperatures have shown an overall increase that seems likely to continue. The organism P. malariae lives in red blood cells, causing the host organism to experience high fevers and chills. What property of gold is often used to separate it from other natural Earth materials? What is a planar projection? Consumers are wary of the potential effects these genetically modified organisms may have on human health.

Although many dinosaurs were plant eaters, some were meat eaters. }{ \left(^{\circ} \mathrm{C}\right)} & \text{6.1} & \text{6.6} & \text{6.6} & \text{6.6} & \text{6.6} & \text{6.1} & \text{6.1} & \text{6.1} & \text{6.1} & \text{6.1} & \text{6.6} & \text{6.6} & \text{6.4}\\ Which is not organic matter? Suggest how to make the decision-making model presented here more powerful. What is wrong with the mercator projection? Develop a hypothesis to explain why no dinosaurs survived. The scale is also true on the central meridian of the projection. Where do they distort shape the most? For example, many indigenous tribes exist throughout the corridor. Just as an ordinary computer database management system can manipulate rows and columns of data in tabular form, the GIS allows data management using, This means the data and map are encoded, usually as numbers representing coordinates of locations at point on a grid covering the mapped area. The diagram represents the carbon cycle. Where calculations are required, show your work. A "good" map is one that is successfully used for its intended purpose and was created in a precise and accurate manner. (b) Describe how the concept of SLOSS can be used to overcome the challenges of connecting fragmented land. Who said "Travel is fatal to prejudice, bigotry, and narrow-mindedness, and many of our people need it sorely on these accounts". a type of map projection that projects Earth onto a cone that is either tangent to the Earth at a single parallel(single parallel projection), or secant at two parallels (secant conic projection). In what cases are conic projections not good for? What does Lambert Conformal Conic preserve? In 1997, tropical nations joined together in a massive plan to create a continuous terrestrial corridor that would conserve endemic species and allow dispersal of species between North and South America. All the remote multispectral sensing systems up to this point work by, sensing the natural radiation emitted by or reflected from an object and are therefore characterized as passive systems, has its own source of electromagnetic radiation. mathematically transferred the features from the sphere to a flat surface. Except for maps of very small areas, where both properties can be closely approximated, conformality and equivalence cannot be maintained on the same projection, and thus the art of mapmaking is often an art of compromise. At the lines of intersection, the projection is free from distortion. "The Mayan Civilization" title, date, legend, scale, direction, location, data source, and projection type, a brief summary of the map's content or purpose. Which group of animals was dominant during the Mesozoic Era? What countries does Peter's projection preserve? (d) World population is expected to be between 8 billion and 10 billion by 2050. What are some ways vertical landscape is portrayed on maps? (made up of triangles), A map which shows true compass directions; longitude lines are straight and latitude lines are circles; distorts shape and size more toward the outer edges. Know the electromagnetic spectrum - INSIDE AND OUT! Which weather event will likely result? Based on light source, what are the three types of planar projections? For what land areas are conic projections most used for? These results may be caused by the production of toxic enzymes by the foliage of Bt-positive crops that deters herbivory while the plant is living, but leaches into the soil as the plant decomposes. A. animal wastes B. dead insects C. decayed leaves D. mineral fragments, which symbol is a 5 mil diameter circle is displayed on the hud to show bullet impact at the set target altitude for bullets fired one bullet time-of-flight ago. What kind of electromagnetic spectrum can the naked eye see? More accurate than the mercator, more useful reference map because country sizes are more true to size. other minerals. It is often used for maps in educational materials, a. is a compromise azimuthal map that does not preserve area, shape, distance, or direction, but minimize distortion for all of those. he compensated for the east/west stretching by spacing the parallels of latitude increasingly farther apart so that north/south stretching occurs at the same rate. \text{CRUZ LOMA, ECUADOR; LAT. \text{Precip. 1.Polar planar projection - the focus is located at one of the poles. What was the only form of remote sensing that was used for geographic purposes until the 60's? (3) Gold one of the most abundant common minerals. These imaging experiments were so successful that NASA then developed what was initially called Earth Resources Technology Satellite series (ERTS) and later renamed Landsat. Using the Mercator map will allow a navigator to generally take, the shorter path of a great circle route by simply making periodic changes in the compass course, relatively undistorted in the low latitudes and increases rapidly in the mid and high altitudes because the meridians do not converge at the poles but instead remain parallel to each other. the parameters of the image can be readily manipulated, What is the Global Positioning System (GPS), a global navigation satellite system for determining accurate positions on or near Earth's surface developed in the 70's and 80's by the US Department of Defense to aid in navigation aircraft, guiding missiles, and controlling group troops, a constellation of at least 24 high altitude satellites configured so that a minimum of four or six are in view of any position on Earth. Essentially it is a conformal projection, but is different from the Transverse Mercator in that the central line of the projection is the satellite groundtrack, along which distortion is minimized. describe a cylindrical projection surface: a type of map projection that projects Earth onto a cylinder by touching the earth on one line (tangent) or intersecting the earth through two lines (secant). (3D of one pole), A map that has minimum amount of distortion to the shape of the world's major land masses. What type of relationship is this? its obtained by mathematically "wrapping" the globe with a cylinder of paper in such a way that the paper touches the globe only at the globe's equator, This type of wrapping, we say it is _______ to the globe at the equator and the equator is called the ______ __ _______, In cylindrical projection, what happens to the curved parallels and meridians, they will form a perfectly rectangular grip on the map and having the equator as the tangency line produces a right angled grid (meridians and parallels meet at right angles) on a rectangular map. Where is it used? b. Environmental Science: Your World, Your Turn (Florida), mathematical transformation of points from the sphere or ellipsoid onto a plane, term used for surfaces in geometric form used in projection process. Highly accurate units that are capable of detecting location differences of less than 1 centimeter of latitude, longtitude, and elevation. }{0^{\circ} \text {LONG} } \ { 79^{\circ} \mathrm{W}}\\ Ex: there are 63,360 inches in a mile, so on a map with a fractional scale of 1:63,360, we can say 1 inch represents 1 mile, One that has a relatively large representative fraction or the denominator is smaller, One that has a relatively small representative fraction or the denominator is larger, a system in which the spherical surface of Earth is transformed for display on a flat surface. You can control some of these but never all, Cartographers often strive to maintain accuracy either of size or shape using map properties known as, In an equivalent map projection or equal area map projection, the correct size ratio of area on the map to the corresponding actual area on Earth's surface is maintained over the entire map. More recently, scientists have begun inserting Bt genes into other plant types, such as rice, canola, and cotton. Which statement regarding a global environmental indicator is NOT correct? What is the most important active sensing used in Earth sciences? is only sensitive to a narrow portion known as visible light, colors seen in a rainbow. X-rays, ultraviolet radiation, infrared radiation, radio waves, uses electronic sensors or photographic film sensitive to radiation in the near infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum - wavelengths of radiation just longer than the human eye can see, With color IR imagery, sensitivity to visible blue light is replaced by sensitivity to, These images, even though they are false color images, are. Developers of this initiative have faced several problems. Conic projections are used in the U.S. and other large countries with territory that stretches more in the east-west direction than in the north-south direction. (a) Increased crop yields, (b) Decreased pesticide use, (c) Increased nitrogen fixing, (d) Easy integration of crop rotation, (e) Decreased erosion. Parallels refer to the lines that touch or intersect with earth, also referred to as standard parallel. Support your answers with relevant information and examples. (oval, distorts poles), Projects the entire Earth into a circle, though the polar regions are subject to extreme distortion. What are the map projections classified by surface? $$ Why is evolution considered to be such an important idea in biology? Each parallel is a circular arc of true scale. Consider this recent report from a study examining the Bt-crops: We observed slower decomposition of leaf litter and stems from Bt-positive transgenic strains of rice, tobacco, canola, cotton, and potato relative to decomposition of litter from Bt-negative strains. What needs to be understood no matter how map projections are done? Displacement from their land would mean the loss of the culture and heritage associated with those tribes.There are also challenges in purchasing and connecting fragmented land, as well as monitoring the success of the corridor. Describe some signs that the world may be progressing toward a sustainable future. Countries and continents are displayed close to their true relative sizes. It is an element. -maintain true direction with respect to the map center. What is the most common system of location? (a) Concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide have been rising quite steadily since the Industrial Revolution. b. The best projection has no geometric distortion in area, shape, distance, and direction. Arthur T. DeGaetano, Jay M. Pasachoff, Mead A. Allison, Kent Pryor, Lissa Bainbridge-Smith, Richard Allan, Tracey Greenwood, Interactive Science: Ecology and the Environment, Earth Science: Geology, the Environment, and the Universe, Frances Scelsi Hess, Kunze, Letro, Sharp, Snow. also called a rhumb line, a curve on the surface of a sphere that crosses all meridians at the same angle and represents a line of constant compass direction. A system of low pressure with rotating clouds was forming over an ocean. The developable surfaces axis of symmetry is at right angles to the Earths axis. A projection in which the whole of the map as well as each part has the same proportional area as the corresponding part of the earth. What is often the first essential step toward understanding the spatial distributions and relationships of geographic features? c. Many scientists think that the asteroid impact at the end of the Cretaceous prevented plant growth for many years. What is it? Where is the scale true in these? As a specific projection, the polyconic is conceptualized as "rolling" a cone tangent to the Earth at all parallels of latitude, instead of a single cone as in a normal conic projection. Which of the following is not an example of point-source pollution? What is the primary benefit of perennial plants? a central parallel (usually the equator) and central meridian (often the prime meridian) cross at right angles in the middle of the map, When and where does distortion occur in pseudocylindrical projections, distortions in size and/or shape normally increases progressively as one moves away from this point in any direction, In the pseudocylindrical projections, all of the parallels are, In the pseudocylindrical projects, all meridians, except the central meridian are, one technique used with pseudocylindrical projections to minimize distortion of the continents is to "interrupt" oceanic regions, Goode's interrupted homolosine equal-area projection, The shapes of continental coastlines, in interrupted projections are, very well maintained even in high latitudes, When global distributions are mapped, the continents are often more important than the oceans, and yet the oceans occupy most of the map space in a typical projection. Describe a Azimuthal equidistant projection? These towns are both located near the equator, less than 200 kilometers (120 miles) apart. Projects the earth continents as one island. (c) Describe two ecosystem services that could be monitored to evaluate the health of protected land in the corridor. The WXT transceiver is connected to the DMCs via two ARINC 453 databuses. a. oil that is escaping from a damaged tanker b. heavy metals that are leaching out of an underground mine c. water runoff from residential lawns d. untreated sewage that is accidentally released from a wastewater treatment plant. A map projection in which the angles at each point are preserved. What type of projection is it? These circles are equal in area before projection, but distorted afterwards. A map projection resulting from the conceptual projection of the Earth onto a tangent or secant plane. Once the data and the map are inside the GIS, the user can, organize or search the data using the map, or the map using the data, One important attribute is the capability of GIS data from different maps and sources, such as field data, map data, and remotely sensed images, to be registered, together with a common database, with a common map scale and map projection, Being able to register different info in a common database allows, one map layer, such as rivers, to be cross referenced to another, such as geology soils, or slope, Arthur T. DeGaetano, Jay M. Pasachoff, Mead A. Allison, HMH Science Dimensions Earth and Space Science, Interactive Science: Ecology and the Environment. If no grid is shown, direction may be indicated by a straight arrow pointing north, This arrow that points north is also known as. circles used to visualize distortions due to map projection. (mm)} & \text{198} & \text{185} & \text{241} & \text{236} & \text{221} & \text{122} & \text{36} & \text{23} & \text{86} & \text{147} & \text{124} & \text{160} & \text{1779}\\