https://doi.org/10.14232/belv.2016.2.4.Search in Google Scholar, Csata, Zsombor. Garca, Ofelia & Naomi Kano. Minority?]. My own minority (and) educational experience, academic but also personal, enabled me to grasp a segment of the realities of the students and teacher and to be accepted as part of the classroom. 118. 2013. any other arguments for one over the other (or a different suggestion altogether)? http://itthon.transindex.ro/?cikk=28083&miert_nem_szavazta_meg_az_rmdsz_hogy_a_magyar_diakoknak_ne_kelljen_romanbol_erettsegizniuk? Writing against culture. Through seeing the above examples as translanguaging, it is possible to focus on the students as language users and on their way of strategizing educational expectations and their language skills. Hence, the official language of a country is both and ideologically charged and a practically important issue as it provides (or fails to provide) a means of integrating minority members into the mainstream society (Kiss 2011). Also the number of vowels and consonants in the language plays an important role in deciding the difficulty level of that language. Language policy and planning in Serbia: Language management and language leadership. London: Palgrave Macmillan.10.1007/978-3-319-52467-2Search in Google Scholar, Programa de examen pentru disciplina limba i literatura romn. (Hungarian girls are beautiful).The remaining syllables all receive an equal, lesser stress, but all syllables are pronounced clearly and evenly, even at the end of a sentence, unlike in English. 2018). However, as a student in Miercurea Ciuc shared his opinion with me, there is too much fuss around it. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.10.1007/978-3-319-78893-7_3Search in Google Scholar, Karabegovi, Deneta, Sladjana Lazic, Vjosa Musliu, Julija Sardeli Winikoff, Elena B. Stavrevska & Jelena Obradovic-Wochnik. Chichester: Wiley & Blackwell.Search in Google Scholar, Garca, Ofelia. This ethnographic approach enabled me to grasp multilingual practices in the Romanian class. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.10.21832/9781783092246-018Search in Google Scholar, Garca, Ofelia & Wei Li. In Romania, Hungarian speaking students acquire the official language of the country mainly in educational settings but also through informal means. 2020. Given your reasons for learning these languages, I would recommend Hungarian. The important points to be considered when we compare Hungarian and Romanian are the origin, speaking countries, language family, different greetings, speaking population of these languages. The 2011 Law on Education stipulates that in all phases of public education, students studying in a language of instruction that is not Romanian should study the subject Romanian language and literature according to curriculum designed for them and from textbooks other those used by their peers for whom it is a first language (Legea 2011; see also Tdor 2015, 2018).
2017. Bangor: The Welsh Language Board.Search in Google Scholar, Wodak, Ruth & Kristof Savski. The methods of collecting data from the inner circle of the research includes participant observation in Romanian language and literature classes in a secondary school in Miercurea Ciuc. 8393. ), Negotiating language policies in schools: Educators and policy makers, 211231. For example: You might have noticed the bunch of "e" in the word, which is another part of the Hungarian language: vowel harmony. 2020. Therefore, while translanguaging was allowed and encouraged in class, the essay that was to be the end-product of the analysis had to be written in monolingual literary Romanian. 2016.
With regard to bilingual education, Garca and Kano (2014) make a typology of educational models according to how the majority language is being taught to minority language students: it can be 1) a taught subject; 2) the language of instruction; 3) the teachers context; or 4) the context of the school. They live largely in the territory of Transylvania, which was formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, then unified with the Kingdom of Romania in 1918, with the new borders defined by the Peace Treaty of Trianon in 1920. Therefore, I pose the question how translanguaging takes place in a classroom where students first language (Hungarian) is being used with the aim of facilitating their performance in a second language (Romanian) at the graduation exam. ), Unequal accommodation of minority rights: Hungarians in Transylvania, 345379. ), Inclusion, education and translanguaging: How to promote social justice in (teacher) education?, 1120. In nation-states, full command of the countrys official language helps linguistic minorities social mobility, inclusion into the dominant culture, politics, economy, and education (Shohamy 2006). Critical discourse ethnographic approaches to language policy. correct pronounciation of neologisms, accents), lexico-semantic (e.g. Language knowledge and discrimination based on it creates and removes opportunities for certain speakers (De Korne and Hornberger 2017: 248). Nitra: Univerzita Konstantina Filozofa v Nitre.Search in Google Scholar, Tdor, Erika Mria. On love and frustration: Contradictions and decoloniality in knowledge production and cultivation by post-Yugoslav female scholars. In Tams Kiss, Istvn Gerg Szkely, Tibor Tor, Nndor Brdi & Istvn Horvth (eds. Horvth, Istvn & Tibor Tor. ), New perspectives on translanguaging in education, 1019. I've been hoping to tackle Arabic in 2019, but now that that course is delayed again, I'm trying to decide on my next language. 2006. Countering unequal multilingualism through ethnographic monitoring. 2007. 2013. Modern Hungarian is written using an expanded Latin alphabet, and has a phonemic orthography, i.e. With regard to language and communication, these language skills need to be applied in the exam on the phonetic (e.g. Students would often say phrases such as I have an idea, but I dont know how to say it in Romanian and talk about the poem in Hungarian. This unspoken drive to homogeneity excludes and marginalizes speakers who do not conform to the monolingual language norm (Blackledge 2008; Jonsson 2017). In Ildik Vano & Istvn Kozmcs (eds. The monolingual habitus as the common feature in teaching in the language of the majority in different countries. The final draft of the article was also approved by Gabi. 335356. However, as the case study of the Hungarian 12th graders from Miercurea Ciuc shows, translanguaging can and does serve as a vision and ideology of what education could be if students were to be given experiences that de-link from the  matrix of power (Garca 2020). 2014. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan.10.1007/978-3-319-78893-7_4Search in Google Scholar, Jakonen, Teppo, Tams Pter Szab & Petteri Laihonen. [Why did the RMDSZ vote against Hungarian students having to take a graduation exam in Romanian?] What is specific in the case I discuss in this article, however, is that translanguaging has a particular goal too: to enhance students language skills in their weaker language in a testing situation. Language education policy in late modernity: (Socio) linguistic ethnographies in the European Union. rettsgi 2013. Similarly, the word curcubeu [rainbow] was recalled from the poem Leoiaca tnr, iubirea, and on the occasion when the answer was bird, instead of the word pasre, a student remembered how to say a particular type of bird, lark, in Romanian ciocrlie, from the same poem. Language education practices are always situated locally and globally at the same time, as well as in the social, the political, and the economic realms (Prez-Milans 2015; see also Pennycook 2010); therefore, one shall go beyond the official domain to see real language policies. Discourses of integration: Language, skills, and the politics of difference. There are plenty of languages spoken around the world. While language contact practices can also been termed codeswitching, there are differences between the two terms, and the use of translanguaging in this case study is substantiated by several features of this term. Tr s Trsadalom 27(2). French, Spanish, Catalan, Portuguese and Italian Languages. Hungarian: well, I can't really judge it as a foreign language, as I learned it from my mother at the age of 1 :) All I can tell you is that it is an agglutinitive language, which means that it is made up of different pre- and suffixes to form a word. https://doi.org/10.1080/14790718.2014.921175.Search in Google Scholar, Marcz, Lszl. Such tests structure the relationship among languages and create hierarchies among citizens through defining the prestige and status of the language tested, stating what is correct and what is not in a language, and suppressing linguistic diversity (Shohamy 2006). Hornberger, Nancy & David C. Johnson.
It was done mainly in Hungarian so that they understand, Gabi told me. Mirt nem szavazta meg az RMDSZ, hogy a magyar dikoknak ne kelljen romnbl rettsgiznik? In Marilyn Martin-Jones & Deirdre Martin (eds.). For understanding how translanguaging works, it is crucial to see that it is a result of deliberate planning by the teacher (Ganuza and Hedman 2017). Tdor, Erika Mria. TESOL Quartely 29. 2012. Its quite rare in Romanian classes, commented Gabi, referring to the high workload students have to deal with in regular Romanian classes.
I performed this closeness (Karabegovi et al. Romanian language teaching in schools with Hungarian teaching language: Experiences, conclusions and questions. The Hungarian vs Romanian difficulty level basically depends on the number of Hungarian Alphabets and Romanian Alphabets. Discursive shadowing in linguistic ethnography. Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics 10(2). Using Hungarian, the students first language, to facilitate comprehension of the subject matter despite the monolingual bias of the curriculum and mobilizing students passive knowledge of Romanian were the main methods used by Gabi, the teacher whose classes I observed. ), Language learning and teaching: State language teaching for minorities, 2433. 2007. 2006. Towards a sociolinguistic superdiversity. Discursive shadowing in linguistic ethnography. 2012. Reddit hivemind: which do you recommend? For instance, the class used the following sentences: Szval tulajdonkppen azonostja a leoiact a iubirevel? Similarly to students using translanguaging to strategize between the expectations set in the curriculum and the graduation exam they are faced with and their actual linguistic knowledge, the teacher was negotiating between teaching in line with the curriculum and fulfilling students educational needs. The national immersion scheme guidance for teachers on subject language threshold: Accelerating the process of reaching the threshold. Kulcsr, rpd. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 20(3). Language policy in education and classroom practices in India: Is the teacher a cog in the policy wheel? Hungarian language has only preserved most of its ancient elements. Paulsrud, BethAnne, Jenny Rosn, Boglrka Straszer & sa Wedin.
Therefore, being a researcher who is only half-bilingual, who has a very limited repertoire of one of the languages used in the classroom, enabled me to experience the subject matter of the classes and the learning process together with the students. While my highly limited knowledge of Romanian restricted my options of reading on the topic, it was an asset in the classroom: students did not feel ashamed of their errors in Romanian in front of me, especially because I occasionally took the risk of attempting to say something in that language. New York: Routledge.Search in Google Scholar, Otheguy, Ricardo, Ofelia Garca & Wallis Reid. Papp Z. and his colleagues show that in the graduation exam in Romanian language and literature, the scores of Hungarian speaking students are only 13% below the national average. In the East of Transylvania, the three counties of Hargita/Harghita, Kovszna/Covasna, and Maros/Mure roughly correspond to the territory of the Szeklerland (Szkelyfld in Hungarian, Secuimea in Romanian), and in the first two, Hungarians are the largest ethnic group, while in most of the other parts of Transylvania, Hungarians live among the Romanian majority (Figures 1 and 2). It was at the time of my fieldwork that the move of the Hungarian Civic Party (Magyar Polgri Prt MPP) to abolish the graduation exam in Romanian language and literature for students who attend school in a minority language was univocally rejected at the Romanian Parliament with even the Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania (Romniai Magyarok Demokratikus Szvetsge RMDSZ), the largest Hungarian party in Romania, voting against it (Kulcsr 2019). Kolozsvr: Blvnyos Intzet & Mensura Transylvanica.Search in Google Scholar, Waterbury, Myra. The case study of the article is translanguaging as an educational strategy in preparation for the graduation exam in Romanian language and literature in a Hungarian school in Miercurea Ciuc/Cskszereda, Romania. As Creese and Blackledge (2010: 105) note, based on research of numerous case studies in bilingual classrooms, moving between languages has traditionally been frowned upon in educational settings, with teachers and students often feeling guilty about its practice. Language as a local practice. Because it was the first time Gabi was teaching the 12th grade, I could partake in an exploration of the ways to answer students educational needs. The ethnographically informed case study was that of a Hungarian secondary school in the town where students in the final year of their secondary education were preparing for the graduation exam in Romanian language and literature. Ethnographic methods in language policy. Transylvanian Society 13(3). Accents on Hungarian vowels do not mark the stress, but the length of the vowel.aut (car) "A" is tressed, but "O" is pronounced long.levl (letter) "LE" is stressed, but "" is pronounced long. 2018: 46). Otheguy, Ricardo, Ofelia Garca & Wallis Reid. 2020. 9: Ecology of language, 2740. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 14(4). In this vein, language diversity in the classroom is limited, with language policy insisting that languages should be kept separate in the learning and teaching of languages (Creese and Blackledge 2010: 104; see also Cummins 2007; Paulsrud et al. Garca, Ofelia & Kate Menken. Second, unlike codeswitching that emphasizes the code, that is, the identifiable languages, translanguaging focuses on the participants and their practices (Creese 2017): it is a concept that shifts the focus of the analysis from languages in contact to the speakers who are communicating (Jonsson 2017: 20; see also Creese 2017; Jakonen et al. 932.Search in Google Scholar, Flubacher, Mi-Cha & Shirley Yeung. 2017. The main research question of this ethnographically informed article is how translanguaging happens in a classroom where students first language is being used with the aim of facilitating performance in their second language. 2018. 2011. In Anna Fenyvesi (ed. https://doi.org/10.1515/ijsl-2013-0002.Search in Google Scholar, Jonsson, Carla. 2006. The title is very important because it reflect tema [reflects the topic]. 2020). 99107. 1977. Modelling linguistic diversity at school: The excluding impact of inclusive multilingualism. Modern Nyelvoktats 24(4). The Journal of Linguistic and Intercultural Communication 11(2). Unlike most research that explores translanguaging in migrant contexts, where at least one of the languages used is widely distributed, most often English, I deal with a setting that has an autochthonous minority in East Central Europe and where neither of the two languages used are major European languages. Linguistic diversity and social inclusion. 2015. ), New perspectives on translanguaging in education, 208225. In Julie A. Panagiotopoulou, Lisa Rosen & Jenna Strzykala (eds. 2017. 2013. 2020. Johnson, David C. & Thomas Ricento. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511558764Search in Google Scholar, Brubaker, Rogers, Margit Feischmidt, Jon Fox & Liana Grancea. ), New perspectives on translanguaging in education, 2037. 141156. 2011. Postmodernism in language policy. Language and symbolic power. People around the world use different languages to interact with each other. Parallel to the linguistic market value of the knowledge of Romanian, the legislative framework of its education as a second language, or a non-native language (limb nematern in Romanian) has changed too. https://doi.org/10.1515/mult.2011.010.Search in Google Scholar, Kulcsr, rpd. Liddicoat, Anthony J. 2014. 1997. Erdlyi Trsadalom 3(1). 549572. ), Hungarian language contact outside Hungary, 133161. Making the shift from a codeswitching to a translanguaging lens in English language teacher education. Gabi attempted to break out of the tight framework of the graduation exam preparations occasionally, both during the classes when they were analyzing literary works and in a few separate classes devoted to playing games, as the students called it. 329339. 2012. inflectional forms, grammatical agreement), orthographic and punctuation (e.g. 2 la Ordinul Ministerul Educaiei i Cercetrii privind aprobarea programelor pentru Evaluarea Naional pentru absolvenii clasei a VIII-a i pentru probele scrise ale examenului de bacalaureat naional, n anul colar 20192020. In Tams Kiss, Istvn Gerg Szkely, Tibor Tor, Nndor Brdi & Istvn Horvth (eds.). In facilitating translanguaging in class, Gabi went against all three aspects of the monolingual principle of second/foreign language teaching: the direct method that claims that instruction should be carried out exclusively in the target language, the no translation assumption that discourages translation between the first language and the second language, and the two solitudes approach that strictly separates the two languages (Cummins 2007). https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1545-7249.2007.tb00083.x.Search in Google Scholar, Horvth, Istvn. The monolingual habitus as the common feature in teaching in the language of the majority in different countries. In Miercurea Ciuc, the former is the norm, with several schools in town providing Hungarian-language instruction in all subjects (Ben and Szilgyi N 2005; Kiss 2011; Tdor 2019; Tdor and Dgi 2018). Linguistic minorities in Europe online. Yet, even though these spaces proved effective in solving everyday communicative situations, they can only be short-lived, and for both the teacher and the students, translanguaging proved to be a negotiation strategy between policy and practice rather than resistance to or change of the language education policy. Therefore, in the classes I observed, Gabi chose to move away from the monolingual habitus and employ teaching strategies that combine elements from Romanian and Hungarian languages. In the past decades, the social capital accessible through the knowledge of the countrys official language has undergone major shifts in Romania. Since beginning my Duolingo journey in 2015, I have committed to a main focus on one language course per year, with some extra work in a few other languages. Gogolin, Ingrid. When traveling across Transylvania, keep in mind that cultures and languages have no boarders like countries have! Grammar can sometimes be a pain in the arse, but in my opinion it is very easy once you get the hang of it. https://doi.org/10.1515/ausp-2015-0022.Search in Google Scholar, Filipovi, Jelena & Juliana Vuo. Karabegovi, Deneta, Sladjana Lazic, Vjosa Musliu, Julija Sardeli Winikoff, Elena B. Stavrevska & Jelena Obradovic-Wochnik. The suffixes are changed according to the base word's vowels. Vol. A Vajdasgbl Magyarorszgra irnyul tanulmnyi cl migrci [Educational migration from Vojvodina to Hungary]. 2018; Brubaker etal. Clarifying translanguaging and deconstructing named languages: A perspective from linguistics. This was a pedagogical decision in line with the teachers language ideology (Ganuza and Hedman 2017): Gabis socio-political motivation to legitimize the use of more than one language in communication (Jakonen et al.