dedicated decades magazine


Astounding extended its pre-eminence in the field during the boom: the editor, John W. Campbell, developed a stable of young writers that included Robert A. Heinlein, Isaac Asimov, and A.E. The quality of the fiction in the other magazines improved over the decade: Startling Stories and Thrilling Wonder in particular published some excellent material and challenged Astounding for the leadership of the field.

The result was mediocre fiction. Clark Publishing (Palmer), Greenleaf Publishing (Hamling). [109], Two more magazines appeared in early 1941, Stirring Science Stories and Cosmic Stories, on alternating months, starting in February. Think of a dumbbell, with two massive balls connected by a narrow bridge. van Vogt. Experimenter (Gernsback), Radio-Science, Teck, Ziff-Davis, Experimenter (Gernsback), Irving Trust, Radio-Science, Teck.

He also asked his cover artists to produce more sober and less sensational artwork than had been the case under Tremaine. Between 1939 and 1941 there was a boom in science-fiction and fantasy magazines: several publishers entered the field, including Standard Magazines, with Startling Stories and Thrilling Wonder Stories (a retitling of Wonder Stories); Popular Publications, with Astonishing Stories and Super Science Stories; and Fiction House, with Planet Stories, which focused on melodramatic tales of interplanetary adventure. [63] Tremaine was an experienced pulp editor,[63] and Street & Smith gave him a budget of one cent per word, which was better than the competing magazines could pay. Also 27 issues 19511953. In 1995, they conjectured that this restriction will never make things too much worse: There is some universal constant such that the surface area of the best flat cut is at most that constant times the surface area of the best overall cut. [38] (Asimov later said that in the early industry payment was "not on publication but (the saying went) on lawsuit". [41] The combined magazine was titled Wonder Stories, and Science Wonder Quarterly was similarly retitled Wonder Stories Quarterly. The new paper, by Yuansi Chen a postdoctoral researcher at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich who is about to join the statistical science faculty at Duke University gets at the Bourgain slicing problem via an even more far-reaching question about convex geometry called the KLS conjecture. Get Quanta Magazine delivered to your inbox. A comic strip, "Zarnak", was tried, but this only lasted eight issues.

Other notable stories include Fredric Brown's What Mad Universe, which appeared in 1948, and Kuttner's Valley of the Flame, one of several science-fantasy novels he published in Startling. Starting in Winter 1941, Ziff-Davis issued, Blue Ribbon, Double Action, Columbia (all Silberkleit). [114] Other stories still regarded as classics include "They" by Heinlein, "Smoke Ghost" by Fritz Leiber, along with several stories in Leiber's Fafhrd and the Gray Mouser series, and "Trouble With Water" by H.L. Instead of establishing a universal constant, the best they could do was establish a factor that works out to roughly the square root of the dimension the shape lives in. [102] The following year saw the beginning of Asimov's "Foundation" stories, with "Foundation" appearing in May and "Bridle and Saddle" in June. [101] In September 1940, van Vogt's first novel, Slan, began serialization; the book was partly inspired by a challenge Campbell laid down to van Vogt that it was impossible to tell a superman story from the point of view of the superman. [138], Campbell continued to find new writers: William Tenn, H. Beam Piper, Arthur C. Clarke and John Christopher all made their first sales to Astounding in the late 1940s, and he published many stories now regarded as classics, including "Vintage Season" by C.L. Gernsback lost control of Amazing Stories in 1929, but quickly started several new magazines. Delaney's offices were in New York, and Weird Tales' editor, Farnsworth Wright, moved there from Chicago. Clayton, Street & Smith, Cond Nast, Davis, Dell, Crosstown. [36] At the same time Scientific Detective Monthly was retitled Amazing Detective Tales. As well as developing working relationships with these and other established writers, Campbell discovered and nurtured many new talents. Yin-Tat Lee, left, and Santosh Vempala made a significant improvement to the KLS bound in 2016. In 1928 Harold Hersey, who by then was working for Clayton, had suggested a new science-fiction magazine to add to the line-up; Clayton was unconvinced, but changed his mind the following year. High-dimensional convex shapes are a central object of study not just for pure mathematicians but also for statisticians, machine learning researchers and other computer scientists working with high-dimensional data sets. Since the optimal curved cut is so hard to pin down, Kannan, Lovsz and Simonovits wondered how much worse things would be if you only allowed straight cuts. [175], This table provides the following information:[176], Science-fiction and fantasy magazine history. In 1938, he bought Lester del Rey's first story, "The Faithful"; the following year, he published the first stories of A.E. The pace of invention which had marked the war years for Astounding was now slackening, however, and in Ashley's words the magazine was now "resting on its laurels". Miracle ceased publication after only two issues when Dold fell ill, though sales were poor in any case, and Hersey was unable to revive Ghost Stories' fortunes; it was cancelled at the start of 1932. The plan was to start paying contributors once the magazine was profitable. Already bimonthly, Strange Tales also reduced its publication frequency.

Now, Bourgains guess has been vindicated: A paper posted online in November has proved, not quite Bourgains full conjecture, but a version so close that it puts a strict limit on high-dimensional weirdness, for all practical purposes. By introducing a new technique called bootstrapping, Lee and Vempala thought that they could lower the KLS bound all the way down to d raised to a power of 0 plus a little fudge factor. [29] It was difficult for Gernsback to find high-quality new material that was both entertaining and met his declared goal of providing scientific information, and the early issues of Amazing contained a high proportion of reprints. [10] Two years later, Gernsback launched yet another magazine, titled Practical Electrics, and in 1924 he sent a letter to its subscribers suggesting a magazine that would publish only scientific fiction. They supply knowledge that we might not otherwise obtain and they supply it in a very palatable form. The period starting in 1938, when Campbell took control of Astounding, is often referred to as the Golden Age of Science Fiction. So for a 100-dimensional convex shape, for example, they knew that the best straight cut will expose at most about 10 times as much surface area as the very best cut. Booklength work was still reprinted, including G. K. Chesterton's The Man Who Was Thursday and H. G. Wells' The Island of Dr. [127] Not every magazine cancellation was because of the war; the usual vicissitudes of magazine publishing also played a role. Much of the material in both magazines came from a group of Chicago-based writers who published under both their own names and various house pseudonyms; among the most prolific were William P. McGivern, David Wright O'Brien, Don Wilcox, and Chester S.

[129][130] Fantastic Novels merged with its stablemate, Famous Fantastic Mysteries, in 1941, probably because of wartime difficulties, after only five issues. [12], The first magazine to be primarily associated with fantasy and science fiction was Weird Tales, which appeared in March 1923. One of the first into the fray was Other Worlds, Raymond Palmer's first new science fiction magazine since he had left Ziff-Davis. Two runs, 19391941 and 38 issues 19531960. [23][45][46] 1931 also saw Amazing Stories change hands once again; this time it was acquired by Macfadden, whose deep pockets helped insulate Amazing from the effects of the Depression. [96], The original pulp publisher, the Munsey Company, still had no dedicated science-fiction or fantasy magazine by this time, but frequently published stories in Argosy and All-Story which were clearly within the genre. Palmer claimed the highest circulation of any science-fiction magazine, but del Rey comments that though this may have been true, "Palmer's tendency to magnify everything about the magazine cannot be discounted.". For Marvel Science Stories, the Goodmans asked their authors to include more sex in their stories than was usual in the science fiction field; reader reaction was strongly negative to the spicier stories, but the Goodmans kept the magazine going until early 1941, and eventually revived it in 1950 for a few more issues when another science fiction magazine boom began.

Hersey, who by 1930 had gone into business as an independent publisher, acquired the title from Macfadden, and started another magazine, Miracle Science and Fantasy Stories, the following year, with Elliott Dold as editor. Yet Bourgain could not answer his own question about high-dimensional shapes. It appeared in February 1935 and lasted for only three issues. Courtesy of University of Washington; Courtesy of the College of Computing at Georgia Tech. Friend took over as editor of Startling, Thrilling Wonder, and Captain Future;[118] Strange Stories, which had been Weisinger's idea, was killed off with the January issue. west brothel wild saloon montana brothels western history historic rankin prostitution boudoirs distinctlymontana movies jeannette shady mollie johnson american cruz [122] Planet Stories' first few issues contained little notable fiction, but it improved throughout the war. Bourgains slicing conjecture is a vote for high-dimensional tameness a guess that high-dimensional shapes conform to our intuition in at least some ways. Popular paid promptly, which was more than could be said for some of the other publishers, and so despite the low rates Pohl soon began to see submissions that had been rejected by Campbell at Astounding but not sent anywhere else. [30], In early 1929 Gernsback went bankrupt, and his magazines were sold to Bergan A. Mackinnon; both Amazing Stories and Amazing Stories Quarterly continued publication under their new ownership, and Sloane remained as editor. By showing that the tilting process hadnt changed things too much, Eldan was able to calculate a KLS bound for the original shape. A winner of the Fields Medal, mathematics highest honor, he was known as a problem-solver extraordinaire the kind of person you might talk to about a problem youd been working on for months, only to have him solve it on the spot. [43][44], Meanwhile, Ghost Stories, the Macfadden title launched in 1926, was suffering declining sales. But if youre allowed to make curved cuts, all bets are off.

[158][159], Street & Smith, one of the longest established and most respected magazine publishers, shut down all their pulps in the summer of 1949. [163][164], Although Astounding had been in digest format since 1943, few new digest magazines had been launched since then. Exposing 10 times as much surface area might not sound so great. The fiction was of higher quality than in the first incarnation of the magazine, but it lasted less than two years. [137] Mainstream magazines began publishing science fiction after the war. Writers such as John D. MacDonald, Margaret St. Clair, William Tenn, Arthur C. Clarke, James Blish, and Damon Knight all sold to Merwin, and the net effect was a dramatic improvement in the quality of both magazines, to the point where Ashley suggests that by the late 1940s, Thrilling Wonder, in particular, was a serious challenger to Astounding for the leadership of the field. These were published by a father and son operating under the name of Albing Publications; they had almost no capital, but persuaded Donald Wollheim to edit the magazine for no salary at all, with no budget for fiction.

Gernsback replaced Lasser with a 17-year-old science fiction fan, Charles Hornig, at less than a third of Lasser's salary. [88] At the end of 1938 Weird Tales' owner, B. Cornelius, sold his interest in the magazine to William J. Delaney, the publisher of Short Stories, a general fiction magazine.

This was initially a financial success, and Standard decided to add another title, Wonder Story Annual. Lovecraft, Clark Ashton Smith and Robert E. Howard became regular contributors.

[27], Gernsback's declared goals for Amazing were to educate and to entertain. [172] Knight included material by non-genre writers such as Graham Greene and Rudyard Kipling, along with genre names such as Katherine MacLean and Lester del Rey. The publisher was William Clayton, a successful publisher of pulp titles. [55] Lasser was willing to print material that lay outside the usual pulp conventions, such as Eric Temple Bell's The Time Stream and Festus Pragnell's The Green Man of Graypec. [89][112] With Wright's departure, Unknown quickly became the leading magazine in its small field. Ashley considers the fiction to have been of reasonable quality, and the magazine's failure may have been because Carwood, the publisher, was small and relatively inexperienced, and may have had weak financing and distribution. Stories with science-fiction themes had been appearing for decades in pulp magazines such as Argosy, but there were no magazines that specialized in a single genre until 1915, when Street & Smith, one of the major pulp publishers, brought out Detective Story Magazine.

[90] Campbell's declared policy for the magazine was to "offer fantasy of a quality so far different from that which has appeared in the past as to change your entire understanding of the term";[91] the goal was to bring "the science fiction rationale to fantasy",[92] in Ashley's words. Random walks are pretty much the only effective methods available for sampling random points, Eldan said. The editor, Mary Gnaedinger, choose Merritt's "The Moon Pool" and Ray Cummings' "The Girl in the Golden Atom" for the first issue, dated September/October; both titles were likely to attract readers. I was told once by Jean that he had spent more time on this problem and had dedicated more efforts to it than to any other problem he had ever worked on, wrote Vitali Milman of Tel Aviv University earlier this year.

[116], In 1941 Weisinger left Standard Magazines to work on the early DC Superman comics,[117] and Oscar J. Its a very, very beautiful process, Bubeck said. No one knows Yuansi Chen in our community, Eldan said. [121][129] Both Science Fiction and Future eventually reappeared in the 1950s. [131] In 1942 Famous Fantastic Mysteries was sold by Munsey to Popular, who were already the publishers of Astonishing Stories and Super Science Stories. [67], Amazing Stories, and its sister magazine, Amazing Stories Quarterly, both of which had been edited by T. O'Conor Sloane since Gernsback lost control of them in 1929, published little of note during the early 1930s, though Sloane did print the first story by several writers later to become well-known, including John W. Campbell,[68] John Wyndham, and Howard Fast. Ashley (2000); Ashley (2005); Tymn & Ashley (1985). [54] Lasser corresponded with his authors to help improve both their level of scientific literacy, and the quality of their writing; Asimov has described Wonder Stories as a "forcing ground", where young writers learned their trade. [89] While this took place, another competitor to Weird Tales was launched, this time by Street & Smith. It was the work of William Crawford, a specialty publisher, and varied between pulp and digest sizes. A pulp magazine was usually 10 x 7 inches, but magazines are often regarded as pulps even if they printed most or all of their run in other sizes 11.75 x 8 inches is known as large pulp, and sometimes as bedsheet, though this latter term is confusing because "bedsheet" format can also refer to a different, significantly larger, magazine format. Through what Chen called some little tricks but Vempala called an elegant and important new insight, Chen figured out how to make Lee and Vempalas bootstrapping method work. Gernsback included a letter column in Amazing Stories, and this led to the creation of organized science-fiction fandom, as fans contacted each other using the addresses published with the letters. Quanta Magazine moderates comments tofacilitate an informed, substantive, civil conversation. Chen dived into the literature and spent several weeks trying to fill the gap in Lee and Vempalas proof, but to no avail. Among all the possible cuts, which will minimize the exposed surface? The new magazine was added to Hornig's responsibilities, but by the end of the year Hornig had moved to California and all three titles were given to Robert W. Lowndes to edit.

Smith, and The Players of Null-A by A.E.

[48] The Quarterly schedule became irregular in 1932, and it finally ceased publication with the Fall 1934 issue. [98], When Campbell took over as editor of Astounding, he began to attract some of the major writers in the field, including Clifford D. Simak, L. Ron Hubbard, and Jack Williamson. [158] Reprints of old classics such as George Allan England's The Flying Legion and Garrett P. Serviss's The Second Deluge constituted most of Fantastic Novels' contents, with some more recent material such as Earth's Last Citadel, by Kuttner and Moore, which had only previously appeared as a serial in Argosy in 1943. It was enormously successful, and on the strength of Smith's Skylark series of novels, and his later Lensman series, Smith became "one of the greatest names, if not the greatest of all" to science fiction readers of the 1930s. I was starting to feel, Yeah, maybe this is the truth, Eldan said. [56] Sf critic John Clute gives Lasser credit for making Wonder Stories the best science-fiction magazine of his day,[57] and critics Peter Nicholls and Brian Stableford consider it to be the best of Gernsback's forays into the genre. Only eight science-fiction and fantasy magazines survived World War II. Abusive, profane, self-promotional, misleading, incoherent or off-topic comments will be rejected. [87][88] Startling included a lead novel and a "Hall of Fame" reprint section in every issue; the latter was possible because the publisher, Standard Magazines, owned the back catalog of Wonder Stories. In 1933 Astounding was acquired by Street & Smith, and it soon became the leading magazine in the new genre, publishing early classics such as Murray Leinster's "Sidewise in Time" in 1934. [165] Howard Browne took over from Palmer as editor of Amazing and Fantastic Adventures, and made strides in improving the quality of both magazines, though much of his impact only became visible after 1950. [81], Meanwhile, Bernarr Macfadden's Teck Publications, the owner of Amazing Stories, was running into financial difficulties, and in 1938 the magazine was sold to Ziff-Davis, a Chicago-based publisher. [142], Sam Merwin, who had taken over from Oscar Friend at Standard Magazines towards the end of the war,[122] abandoned the juvenile approach that had characterized both Startling and Thrilling; he asked Bergey to make his covers more realistic, and started to publish more hard science fiction, including work by Murray Leinster, George O. Smith, and Hubbard. After a failed attempt to persuade his readers to support a subscription-only model, he gave up and sold the magazine to Ned Pines of Standard Magazines in February 1936. [22][23][24], In June 1927 Gernsback published Amazing Stories Annual, twice the size (and twice the price) of the regular Amazing Stories. He was unable to make Amazing into a real rival to Astounding, and Ashley speculates that Bernard G. Davis, who ran the editorial offices of Ziff-Davis, may have instructed Palmer to focus on entertainment rather than on serious science fiction. After all, if the shape were extremely skinny in every direction, how could it have enough substance to form one unit of volume? Frequent contributors included L. Ron Hubbard, Theodore Sturgeon, and L. Sprague de Camp, who, in collaboration with Fletcher Pratt, contributed three stories about a world where magic operates by logical rules. [174], Doubleday, Simon & Schuster, and other large, mainstream companies began publishing science-fiction books around 1950. This saw the return to the field of F. Orlin Tremaine, who had been influential in the mid-1930s when he edited Astounding. The difficulty is that high-dimensional shapes often behave in ways that defy our human, low-dimensional intuition. It was a failure and lasted only two issues. Crawford ran into problems with distribution and production, and the magazine was never regular, but he produced eight issues over the next four years that included some worthwhile material, most notably Cordwainer Smith's first story, "Scanners Live in Vain", in the January 1950 issue. Just a few months before his death in 2018, he contacted Milman, inquiring if there had been any progress. Applied repeatedly, this bootstrapping approach achieves the approximately constant bound for the KLS conjecture, and also for the Bourgain slicing problem. These often had science-fictional plots, but were not primarily science-fiction or fantasy magazines. One exception, Out of This World Adventures, was an experiment by Avon, combining fiction with some pages of comics. In dimension two, mathematicians know that the best cut will always be a straight line or an arc of a circle. [72] H.P. All were still in pulp magazine format except for Astounding, which had switched to a digest format in 1943. Rural had previously launched the magazine Detective Tales. Myers. The format was left unchanged, but the stories and covers became much more action-oriented. [79], At the end of 1937, Street & Smith promoted Tremaine to assistant editorial director, and his place as editor of Astounding was taken by John W. Campbell. Clareson also proposes that Galaxy Science Fiction and The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction, two of the most important and successful science-fiction and fantasy magazines, were direct descendants of Unknown. [42] Amazing Detective Tales, at least, was not helped by the title change, and after the October issue Gernsback sold the magazine to Wallace Bamber, who published five more issues the following year, though there was no longer any science fiction or fantasy content.

Burroughs' name was a powerful aid to sales, and since Gernsback had secured two stories by Abraham Merritt, who was also very popular, the magazine sold out all 150,000 copies, despite the high price. van Vogt, and Raymond F. Jones, but the overall quality was not high; Ashley characterizes the magazine as "good, but not quite good enough". [102] Van Vogt's "Recruiting Station", in the March issue, was the first story in his "Weapon Shop" series,[102] described by John Clute as the most compelling of all van Vogt's work. Both went on to become established writers. But his contribution turned out to be easy to verify. Chens result means that the best 50-50 cut of a convex shape isnt that much smaller than the best flat cut in other words, high-dimensional convex shapes dont contain hidden dumbbells with very narrow bridges. [37], January 1930 also saw the first issue of Astounding Stories of Super-Science, which would go on to become the most influential magazine in the field within a decade. [32] Lasser printed work by some popular authors, including Fletcher Pratt, Stanton Coblentz, and David H. Keller,[33] and two of the winners of the contests Gernsback frequently ran subsequently became well known in the field: Raymond Palmer, later the editor of Amazing Stories, and John Wyndham, best known for his 1951 novel The Day of the Triffids. In the years since Bourgain formulated his problem, it has become what Milman and Boaz Klartag of the Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel called the opening gate to understanding a wide range of questions about high-dimensional convex shapes shapes that always contain the entire line segment connecting any two of their points. All these writers were strongly associated with Astounding over the next few years, and the period starting with Campbell's editorship is sometimes called the Golden Age of Science Fiction. Yuansi Chen atop Chserrugg, a mountain in Switzerland, in December 2020. [133][134] The same year, paper shortages forced John Campbell to choose between Astounding and Unknown, which had already gone to a bimonthly schedule; he decided to keep Astounding on a monthly schedule, and Unknown ceased publication with the October 1943 issue. The planned monthly schedule soon began to slip, skipping July and December. Magazines in digest format began to appear towards the end of the decade, including Other Worlds, edited by Raymond Palmer.

As early as February 1924, Farnsworth Wright took over from Baird as interim editor. [94] Silberkleit was also slow to pay, which was an additional discouragement to authors deciding where to send their work. [1][note 1] These magazines typically did not print fiction to the exclusion of other content; they would include non-fiction articles and poetry as well. Under Sloane Amazing had been dull; Palmer wanted it to be fun, and soon transformed the magazine, publishing escapist stories.

Lasser was spending more time working on labor rights, and Gernsback may also have felt he was neglecting his editorial duties. Bourgain would have been thrilled by this development, mathematicians agree. Very few science-fiction or fantasy pulps were launched after this date; the 1950s was the beginning of the era of digest magazines, though the leading pulps continued until the mid-1950s, and authors began selling to mainstream magazines and large book publishers. The early stories identified by Tremaine as "thought variants" were not always particularly original, but it soon became apparent that Tremaine was willing to take risks by publishing stories that would have fallen foul of editorial taboos at other magazines.