lebanese population in america


The UALM is the only organisation outside of Local Government able to hold such an event. Lebanese-Americans have settled in numerous states and cities but their presence is predominant in the states of Michigan (11%), Massachusetts (5%), California (9%), Ohio (6%), and Florida (6%). He then changed his line to denim pants. Aside from biases in the source, the Immigration Commission reports also do not fully account for transmigration, or immigrants who temporarily or permanently returned to Lebanon. Found your review informative and helpful in pursuing my familys history at the turn of the 20th century from Baskinta and Taibe. According to some estimates, nearly 1 million Lebanese-Americans are distributed across numerous areas in the United States today. In 1910 it had the fourth highest population after New York, Pennsylvania, and Massachusetts. By Muslims followed in large numbers beginning in the late 1960s. I John Akouri, the president and CEO of the Lebanese American Chamber of Commerce I Lebanese Emigration Research center (LERC) NDU. (Najib Arbeely, one of the earliest immigrants to the US and a highly educated doctor, was the inspector at Ellis Island charged with conducting the tests on arriving immigrants). We mined decennial US Census data from 1900 to 1930, as well as other data sets to create a comprehensive profile of the earliest Lebanese-Americans. I regret never getting the full history as to why they came.. Just bits and pieces. However, the immigration reports were compiled with specific partisan agendas in mind, and were directly used to instate literacy tests and country of origin quotas that all but eliminated immigration from everywhere except Northwest Europe in the 1920s. My moms maiden name was Ellis and her moms maiden name was Zegibe. A post shared by The Real Mediterranean Taste (@overseas_mediterranean_chef) on Apr 24, 2020 at 12:46am PDT. I thought it was 1910. Especially since their descendants now occupy political positions such as governor and senator. It also records all of those who left regardless of whether they were destined for Brazil, Australia, or the United States. My mom stayed in the area, attended St. Louis and I believe made her confirmation and communion there too. Quite a few Lebanese Americans have also served or continue to serve as presidents of major universities throughout the country.History of emigration to the USHalf or more of Lebanese Americans are descended from immigrants who arrived to the United States between 1880 and 1940 and the rest arrived after World War II.The Lebanese peddlerThe fundamental factor in the assimilation of the Lebanese in America and the source of their success was peddling goods on foot. The first recorded case of Lebanese immigration to the country, specifically to Boston, took place in 1854. Sophia Harris died 1935 in Indinapolis. In 1992, President Bill Clinton said that Lebanese Americans have played a great role in the history of the United States, with major achievements in medicine, business, law, government and the arts. Two decades later Yale Law School professors Amy Chua and Jed Rubenfeld publishedThe Triple Packagein which they categorized Lebanese Americans as one of the eight most successful immigrant groups in the United States. Aside from showing that Lebanese immigrants were spread throughout the US, this peculiarity reinforces our earlier conclusion that we cannot presume that the history and lives of Lebanese immigrants was centered in New England or New York and Pennsylvania. These three sources agree that the majority of Lebanese immigrants came here between 1890 and 1920, with an interruption during World War I, when the French and British enforced a severe sea blockade off the coast of Lebanon. In 1908 and 1909, the reports did provide data on these points, indicating that in those years, about 25% of immigrants returned. Razook, age 22 had been in the country five years and lived in an American household. Among the minority there are Shi'ites and Sunni Muslim communities are the largest. Some Lebanese Americanized their names to overcome difficulties in spelling and pronunciation of Arabic names.Being In businessLebanese families in the US retained many of their native traditions and values, such as defending and enhancing family status. It produced a competitive spirit that in turn bred an ethic of hard work that paralleled the spirit of the American Dream very much at the forefront of American social consciousness at the time. Christians still comprise a majority of Lebanese in America and in the diaspora of around 14 million Lebanese people living outside Lebanon. This pattern was part of an immigrant hub-spokes system of trade that developed over time. Yes, many must have come from MA. At one point or another, but especially in the earliest years of immigration as many as 40% of those working, peddled. A post shared by Pervoe Radio FM Lebanon (@pervoeradiofm) on Jun 21, 2020 at 12:27am PDT. My great-great-grandfather had visited and worked in America for a year or two before returning to Lebanon, which according to this data means he may have been one of the first to come here. The United Australia Lebanese Movement (UALM) held its 22nd consecutive Australia Day Award Ceremony on 22/01/2020 endorsed by the Australia Day Council of NSW. I dont know the correct spelling of their true a Lebanese names. At one point or another, but especially in the earliest years of immigration as many as, . This post was written by Dr. Akram Khater, Director of the Khayrallah Center, and Marjorie Stevens, Senior Researcher. For those of the Druze faith, their future depends on it", U.S. Arab population doubles over 20 years - News, Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups, Births of U.S. states and territories by race/ethnicity, Race and ethnicity in the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lebanese_Americans&oldid=1099010423, Articles with dead external links from December 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, Jones, J. Sydney, and Paula Hajar. My question is, What means of transportation did they use traveling from Lebanon to France? My mothers family, having also come from a small village in the mountains of Lebanon, settled along the Ohio River (literally) in Cincinnati, Ohio, frequenting across the River to hunt and ride horses in Northern Kentucky. As with most early 20th century immigrants to the US, these early Arabic speakers arrived mainly at Ellis Island, where the odours of disinfectants are worse than the stench of steerage, they await behind the bars their turn uttering such whimpers of expectancy, exchanging such gestures of hope. For many others their route was far more circuitous. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Im putting together the puzzle pieces of my maternal and paternal grandparents as they made their way from the mountains of northern Lebanon to the US via Ellis Island in the late 1800s-early 1900s. In a few years, they moved downtown where the business grew into a department store, the forerunner of the Gantos Corporation, a nationwide chain of womens boutiques operated by his wife and sons, since his death in 1970.Politicized communitiesIt was in the United States that Lebanese Americans began to organize democratically-run clubs and societies. Thus, it may very well be that these reports are not accurate, and reflect more of the racial biases against non-Europeans than the real level of literacy among these early Arabic-speaking immigrants. We usually attend St Elias Festival every Spring. My father passed away in March, and I wish he had known more. [4] This information has been distributed by all American organizations, including the Arab American Institute and the United States census team. As some scholars have argued contrary to long held preconceived notions, the data here shows that women were ever present as immigrants, even from the earliest days of Syrian immigration, and in at least 15% of the cases were heads of households. What kind of work did they do? I want to know so much about my grandmother and grandfather who came from Beirut in the early 1900s. In time, societies based on family name and place of origin were formed. I thought it was 1910. From Marseilles, they departed for either northern ports or to South America. Campus Box 8013 Lebanese proud of her country. It also records all of those who left regardless of whether they were destined for Brazil, Australia, or the United States. Read a complete breakdown of reported occupations for Syrian immigrants arriving between 1899 and 1910 here. However, the census data only represents the population at a young stage in the midst of rapidly growing as the children of immigrants were having children of their own in the 1920s-1940s. Through DNA, my husband has many Birmingham connections in Homewood area. We are fairly confident in the accuracy of the census data. This revelation necessitates a re-telling of the stories of Lebanese immigration to the US, and a shift from an over-emphasis on the northeast. On his death in 1937, his sons expanded nationally and specialized in mens apparel.Joseph Haggar got his start as a cotton grader in 1908 and later peddled. The Lebanese legacy continues to spread across the world. Majorie, thanks for your reply. I wish I knew more about why they left Ellis Island and came all the way to Birmingham, Alabama. Jackie, hello lisa this is habib el hayek from beirut lebanon i always visit baskinta and love it so much what is your family original name. Lebanese-Americans have also served in many notable political, judiciary, and military positions. A significant portion of the Lebanese generations present in the US today descended from the first immigrants who later poured into the country between the late 1800s and the 1940s. As the chart below shows, only a small portion of occupations (merchants, professionals, and a portion of skilled workers) would imply the need or possession of literacy. Some had initially traveled on purpose or by chance to other parts of the Americas stretching from Brazil to Mexico. Then used name Nolan or Nolan. Some material for this essay was based on a previous demographic analysis conducted by the center in 2015 co-authoredby sociologist, Peter Knepper. The NH farmhouse dated back to the 1700s. Merchants dressed smartly and developed wealthy clienteles. Family left Birmingham after 1910 and resettled in Indianpolis. To name a very select few, some of the most prominent Americans who share Lebanese ancestry are: A post shared by Salma Hayek Pinault (@salmahayek) on Feb 21, 2020 at 12:31pm PST, Laura Nader, Elias James Corey, Amin Barakat, Michael Elias DeBakey, Paul Nassif (also a TV Personality), Daniel Amen, Huda Yahya Zoghbi, Hassan Kamel Al-Sabbah, Anthony Attala, Christa McAuliffe, Amin Arnaout, A post shared by Tony Shalhoub (@we_love_tony_shalhoub) on Mar 23, 2020 at 3:06am PDT, Shakira, Frank Zappa, Jamie Farr, Frank Lackteen, Gregory Jbara, Michael Ansara, George Nader, Rosalind Elias, Mario Kassar, Michael Nouri, Mohammad El-Bakkar, Yasmine El-Masri, Emile Ghantous, Nadia Azzi, Salma Hayek, Tony Shalhoub, Marlo Thomas, Danny Thomas, Casey Kasem, Kathy Najimy, Callie Khouri, Tiffany Darwish, Mario F. Kassar, Norma Kamali, Joseph Abboud, J. M. Haggar, Reem Acra, Mansour Farah, Rami Kadi, Huguette Caland, Philip Habib, James Abourezk, Alex Azar, Joseph Sununu, Nick Rahal, Donna Shalala, Gen. John Abizaid, Ralph Nader, Jeanine Ferris Pirro, Darrel Issa, George Mitchell, George Joulwan, James Jebara, A post shared by I the Kennedys (@insta_kennedys), William Blatty, Gibran Khalil Gibran, Joseph Awad, Helen Thomas, Joseph Farah, Nassim Nicola Taleb, Margot Douaihy, Vance Bourjaily, Etel Adnan, Amin Rihani, Lee Francis, Mikhael Naimi, Willaim Peter Blatty, Octavia Nasr, Raghida Dergham, A post shared by TMTPost English (@tmtpost_english), Alec Gores, George Maalouf Sr., Caroline Ghosn, George Maalouf Jr, Jacques Nasser, Manuel Moroun, Thomas J. Barrack, Jr., Joseph Jacobs, Charles El-Achi, Fares Njeim, Debra Cafaro, Joseph Dahr Jamail Jr., George Joseph, A post shared by WMC Sports (@wmc_sports), Liz Carmouche, Matt Freije, John Lahoud, Patrick Maroon, Samir Bannout, Mikie Mahtook, Sage Karam, David Azzi, Fred Saigh, Graham Rahal, Matt Kalil, Soony Saad, John Jeha. They attended St Louis Gonzaga church. known as Solomon Deep Nolan. Thank you The reports quantified data about immigrants including country of origin, race, gender, age, literacy, occupation, finances, and more. I know that some of my fathers family emigrated to Mexico around early 20th century and others settled in Canada in the early 1970s. Their destination was Lawrence Ma. Brooklyn is said to have one of the oldest Lebanese populations in America, dating over 125 years, with a large enclave in the Bay Ridge area. While this much is certain, until now we have not had a clear and detailed demographic portrait of these early immigrants. For those heading to North America, many took trains to Northern ports such as Le Havre and then sailed to New York.

My paternal grandfather was Moses Abdullah Karella The problem has been that most information compiled by researchers was based on rough estimates that, more often than not, provided wildly divergent numbers leaving one more perplexed than informed. Makes more sense now. By 1910, around 3,000 Lebanese lived in Lawrence, Massachusetts and worked in the citys textile mills. The 1911 Reports noted that of the 47,834 Lebanese arriving in the US between 1899 and 1910, and who were 14 years or older, 53.3% (or, 25,496) were illiterate in their own language. Although earlier histories of Syrian immigration to the US focus almost exclusively on the Northeast region, our mapping of the census data shows that Syrians were not confined to that area. There were about five of them originally. Mt grandparents came from Baskinta.. Between 1948 and 1990, over 60,000 Lebanese entered the United States. They would then travel to Cuba, the Caribbean or Mexico to live and work with relatives until they could make their way back through the ports of Pawtucket, Rhode Island, Philadelphia, or overland across the Mexican or Canadian borders. After picking up the shipment, they traveled a route that normally took them to Princeton, Monroe, Mason, Lebanon and then as far as Wilmington, Ohio. Beyond Texas, and in general, this new data shows that the South was demographically more prominent than existing histories of Lebanese migration would lead one to believe. In 1992, President Bill Clinton said that Lebanese Americans have played a great role in the history of the United States, with major achievements in medicine, business, law, government and the arts. Two decades later Yale Law School professors Amy Chua and Jed Rubenfeld publishedThe Triple Packagein which they categorized Lebanese Americans as one of the eight most successful immigrant groups in the United States. My father was adopted when he was 4 years old, and never knew much about his father, Robert Joseph. Many ranged even farther. 1900-1930 United States Federal Censuses: theses censuses, taken every ten years record US residents who claimed Syria, Palestine, or Turkey as their place of birth. 1911 and 1919 Reports of the US Immigration Commission: Each year, the Commissioner General of Immigration tabulated data on American immigrants. One thing that contributed to this is the fact that the majority of the Lebanese community in the US is highly educated. Im in the process of trying to gather more information about my Lebanese Scaff family. Many immigrants settled in northern New Jersey, in towns such as Bloomfield, Paterson, Newark, and Orange. He settled in Bridgeport Texas, as a dry goods seller to the local coal mine. My error in reading the chart. His hradnfa. There was another short-lived spike in immigration between 1920 and 1923. My grandfather and his brothers all changed their names from Lebanese to American ones, and none spoke Arabic. Dearborn, Michigan has the highest concentration of Arab Americans in the United States, at over 40%. Would you by chance have known them? [10], The Arab American Institute reports the top five states where Lebanese Americans reside are: Michigan (11%), California (9%), Ohio (6%), Florida (6%), and Massachusetts (5%). Lebanon ranked the first in Huawei's Middle East ICT competition which took place over the weekend in the Chinese city of Shenzhen, a Huawei statement said Monday. The 1911 Reports of the Immigration Commission indicate that the gender ratio of Syrians arriving in the United States was about two men for every woman: The US census provides similar ratios, but shows an increasing percentage of women by 1920, reflecting the later arrival of women, especially after the end of blockade that ruptured families during World War I. While this provides interesting comparative data which may be accurate, it is important to keep in mind that Immigration Commission chair Senator Dillingham was himself instrumental in instating the literacy test as a means of halting immigration from places like Syria. Names were Karam,Dow,Jacobs. We do not know for sure, but we can finally provide the best estimate. We are trying to piece together my great grandfathers (Amine John Scaff) journey from Syrian Arab Republic (1905) to Eagle Pass Texas. The reports quantified data about immigrants including country of origin, race, gender, age, literacy, occupation, finances, and more. Upon entering America, many of them worked as peddlers. The former head of US Central Command is a Lebanese American, as is the now-retired Supreme Commander of NATO.Lebanese Americans are also active in professional sports such as basketball, hockey, boxing and race car driving. Cities and towns such as New York, or Fort Wayne, Indiana became distribution nodes where well established Lebanese merchants would supply relatives, friends from the village, or any other newcomer, with merchandise such as thread, shaving blades, and lace, and send them along the railroad lines to farther and farther places to be itinerant peddlers. How many of them were women? Currently you have JavaScript disabled. By In comparison, the same report provided that only 1.6% of the native white population of the US was illiterate, while illiteracy among the foreign born population in this same time period was only 12.6%. Below are some of these questions and the best answers we can provide at this point with any factual accuracy. This solitary life compels us to consider whether these immigrants in far-flung countriesmany of whom spoke little Englishexperienced a lonely existence isolated from people familiar with their language and culture. Support our independent media - contribute today! Thats also were I made my first communion and confirmation. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. One exception was the Lebanon League of Progress, founded in 1911, to promote a French-supported Maronite-dominated Lebanon.Lebanese and their descendants were mainly conservative, generally voting Republican because of their economic success and partly because the Republican ideology, with its emphasis on individualism, was predominant among the Diaspora. The 1911 Reports noted that of the 47,834 Lebanese arriving in the US between 1899 and 1910, and who were 14 years or older, 53.3% (or 25,496) were illiterate in their own language. The types of occupations recorded upon immigration shed some light on the lack of literacy in this immigrant group. Others bought farms in states like Texas, South Dakota, and Iowa. This community has been a major contributor to the country and is regarded as one of the US most successful immigrant groups. This is where he lived as he sent for the rest of his family from Lebanon. The chart below shows the age of Syrian immigrants according to the, Immigrants who came to the US between 1880 and 1930 were for the most part illiterate. 20 is in Nevada. In other words, we can longer speak of a single narrative of Syrian immigration, but have to contend with multiple ones that diverge as much as they have common themes. By Hi Bob- My husbands family immigrated 1898 per the 1900 US census- in Nashville, Tn. Arab Americans diverged significantly from the dispersal pattern of most other immigrant communities. They would then travel to Cuba, the Caribbean or Mexico to live and work with relatives until they could make their way back through the ports of Pawtucket, Rhode Island, Philadelphia, or overland across the Mexican or Canadian borders. Thank you for clarity and good illustrations. Rather than the 120,000 figure usually given, we now know that in total around 60,000 Syrians (or half as many as had been assumed) immigrated to the US. In July of 1904, two peddlers, Ali Salaman Qabul and Mahmud Hamzy, were at the train station in Hamilton, Ohio, waiting to take delivery of a shipment of notions sent to them from Fort Wayne, Indiana (some 140 miles away) by Khalil Kobal Farah. Moreover, examining the population by county gives a more precise picture of population distribution. [8] Most Druze immigrated to the U.S. from Lebanon and Syria.[9]. All fields are required. The Lebanese have established a presence in the US since the 19th century. The United States is the second largest home of Druze communities outside the Middle East after Venezuela (60,000). What is evident from these numbers is that the widely held idea that around 120,000 Lebanese immigrated to the US is incorrect. The great majority noted that they were either peasants/farmers, domestic servants, or unskilled workers. There are more Lebanese outside Lebanon today than within. My paternal great-grandparents immigrated in late 1800s/early 1900s and were founding members of the St Elias Maronite Catholic Church in Birmingham, AL. Dr. Michael Shadid saved enough money to attend the University of Washington medical school, by peddling his way from New York to Texas selling jewelry.

They sold ribbons, jewelry, calico work, childrens clothes and much more. Lebanese-Americans are proud of having hailed from Lebanon and many are very vocal about their love for their homeland. Our last name went through a couple iterations in the census remaining a mystery to this day. Naharnet Newsdesk, Bankstown, New South Wales 2200 Then, in 1924 the passage of restrictive immigration laws in the US effectively reduced that first wave to a trickle. Nagib was translated to Joseph once he was here. The NH farmhouse dated back to the 1700s. Click here for instructions on how to enable JavaScript in your browser. Surprised by how few were documented in NH. Likewise, they do not account for immigrants who entered the country multiple times (for example, to escort family members to the US). : theses censuses, taken every ten years record US residents who claimed Syria, Palestine, or Turkey as their place of birth.

How many children did they have, if any? This was a golden era for Lebanese Americans. (. A significant number live in southern California, attracted by a climate and landscape both similar to that of Lebanon.A successful immigrant groupLebanese Americans report high rates of social and educational achievement. I started researching my ancestry a few months ago. Some had initially traveled on purpose or by chance to other parts of the Americas stretching from Brazil to Mexico. However, research at the Khayrallah Center is bringing us ever closer to more definitive answers. Lebanese Americans are the largest group within that Arab population, with a population of nearly 1 million.The Lebanese American population is scattered throughout the Unites States, with the majority living on the east coast. Would you happen to know them or know anything about my grandparents Mary and Albert (Abdo) Ellis? Or perhaps they sought such a life precisely because it took them far away from the densely populated centers in New York or Dearborn. This data begs us to cast a wider look and ask new questions, such as what led hundreds of immigrants to a clearly isolated community in the West? Raleigh, NC 27695-8108. We lived there with my grandparents for a few years. [3] Large scale-Lebanese immigration began in the late 19th century and settled mainly in Brooklyn and Boston, Massachusetts. Surprising. They have served in the cabinets of the last three presidential administrations. They settled in upstate New York and Cincinnati, Ohio respectively.

Since most Lebanese immigrants came to the United States (and other destinations) to work and then return home to live a more secure and comfortable life, then it is not surprising that the majority were of working age. While one Western state may count far fewer immigrants than itsnortheastern counterpart, a particular Western county may still have a significant population that rivals counties in densely populated states. North Carolina State University For example, Chinese and Japanese immigrants were concentrated on the West Coast both by design (farming) and by anti-Asian laws that date back to the 1880s; Mexican immigrants lived and worked primarily in the American Southwest in mines and fields; and Polish immigrants lived in the northeastern quadrant of the U.S. stretching from the Midwest to the Northeast. Lebanese Americans (Arabic: ) are Americans of Lebanese descent. Possibly by 1930. That is not to say that the community has strayed away from its heritage. Lebanese-Americans have played a great role in the history of the United States, with major achievements in medicine, business, law, government, and the arts. ~ US President Bill Clinton, 1992. Sassin and Bedia ( ? ) For example, H. J. Kassem of Rockwood, Tennessee, regularly wired funds to new arrivals in Ellis Island to enlist them in his venture wherein he sent dozens of peddlers into the mountain districts [and] manages to keep bank account well up in the four figure column.. this source provides the most granular data, counting those who emigrated from each village and district in Mount Lebanon. Most of the Lebanese immigrants during the first and the early part of the second waves were Christians. This unusually widespread settlement was driven by the search for work and quick fortunes that could facilitate their return home. While we tend to think of these pioneers are predominantly male, what becomes quickly clear from the recorded numbers is that women were ever present in this, 1911 Reports of the Immigration Commission. At best we have imprecise, and quite often erroneous, answers to questions such as: how many immigrants were living in the United States between 1900 and 1930? Since then, immigration has slowed to an estimated 5,000 immigrants a year, and those who now settle are predominantly Muslim, in contrast to the predominantly-Christian population of immigrants of previous waves. There are three main sources for counting how many Levantine. On average, as of the American Community Survey (ACS) 5-year estimates (20062010), Lebanese Americans have high rates of home ownership, bigger houses, and higher income than the average American citizen, and tend to be more highly educated than the general population.Lebanese prominence: sectors and regionsIn Motor City, Detroit, there is a substantial number of high-profile Lebanese American executives, a large number of upper and mid-level executives, engineers and administrative white collar employees, coupled with leaders in the unions, blue-collar work, as well as dealership owners, tire company proprietors, after-market corporations, and automotive consultants.In New York and Los Angeles, there has been an influx of very successful Lebanese Americans in theater, television, film, fashion and food.As for Washington, DC, Lebanese Americans have succeeded in politics. For instance, many Lebanese moved from Lawrence, Mass. There were about five of them originally. The chart below shows the total population of Syrian immigrants in the United States according to the US Census as well as the total ethnic Syrian population (including children born to Syrian immigrants in the United States). At first, many of these resorted to peddling in order to make a living but, soon enough, they rose to the top of the food chain and made a name for themselves as a capable community with unabating earnestness to grow and provide. All rights reserved. The average income of a Lebanese in the US is generally higher than that of the average American, according to a survey conducted by the American Community Survey between 2006 and 2010. John Mansoor, a 42 year old immigrant of three years was living with a Russian family despite having his own wife and children elsewhere. Great work and important contribution to an important period on national identity and socio-cultural development. For example, between 1900 and 1930, Las Animas County, in Colorado, reported hundreds of immigrants living in this remoteand by some measures unlikelycorner of the state. Indeed, the Lebanese diaspora in the States has birthed highly successful executives, engineers, entertainment personalities, musicians, academics, journalists, health professionals, scientists, athletes in addition to politicians and government officials. Immigrants who came to the US between 1880 and 1930 were for the most part illiterate. Easton, Pennsylvania; Utica, New York; San Diego, California; Jacksonville, Florida; Sterling Heights, Michigan; Los Angeles County; San Francisco, California; Peoria, Illinois; Grosse Pointe, Michigan; Miami, Florida; Wichita, Kansas; Bloomfield, Michigan; Fall River, Massachusetts; Worcester, Massachusetts; Boston, Massachusetts; Methuen, Massachusetts; Lawrence, Massachusetts; Salem, New Hampshire; Cleveland, Ohio; Lansing, Michigan; East Grand Rapids, Michigan; Lafayette, Louisiana; St. Clair Shores, Michigan; Toledo, Ohio; the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex; El Paso, Texas; Austin, Texas; San Antonio, Texas and Houston, Texas also have sizeable Lebanese communities.