eiffel tower official site


[79] In reality, since zoning restrictions limit the height of most buildings in Paris to seven storeys, only a small number of tall buildings have a clear view of the tower. It was envisioned after discussion about a suitable centerpiece for the proposed 1889 Exposition Universelle, a world's fair to celebrate the centennial of the French Revolution.

Smaller sprockets at the top guided the chains. [27] At the same time the lift in the north pillar was removed and replaced by a staircase to the first level. It was wind resistance. [19] Although the metalwork had been prepared with the utmost attention to detail, provision had been made to carry out small adjustments to precisely align the legs; hydraulic jacks were fitted to the shoes at the base of each leg, capable of exerting a force of 800 tonnes, and the legs were intentionally constructed at a slightly steeper angle than necessary, being supported by sandboxes on the scaffold. [68], He used graphical methods to determine the strength of the tower and empirical evidence to account for the effects of wind, rather than a mathematical formula. [citation needed], On the second level, the French newspaper Le Figaro had an office and a printing press, where a special souvenir edition, Le Figaro de la Tour, was made. The west and north legs, being closer to the river Seine, were more complicated: each slab needed two piles installed by using compressed-air caissons 15m (49ft) long and 6m (20ft) in diameter driven to a depth of 22m (72ft)[20] to support the concrete slabs, which were 6m (20ft) thick. No French company wanted to undertake the work. This restaurant has one star in the Michelin Red Guide. Lead paint was still being used as recently as 2001 when the practice was stopped out of concern for the environment.[59][81]. The tower is 330 metres (1,083ft) tall,[5] about the same height as an 81-storey building, and the tallest structure in Paris. In 1910, Father Theodor Wulf measured radiant energy at the top and bottom of the tower. [36], Many innovations took place at the Eiffel Tower in the early 20th century. [39] From 1925 to 1934, illuminated signs for Citron adorned three of the tower's sides, making it the tallest advertising space in the world at the time. Will it not also be grandiose in its way? [53] A service lift was added to the south pillar for moving small loads and maintenance personnel three years later. [61] In 2004, the Eiffel Tower began hosting a seasonal ice rink on the first level.

More than 250million people have visited the tower since it was completed in 1889. At the bottom of the run, the chains passed around 3.9m (12ft 10in) diameter sprockets. The Court of Cassation, France's judicial court of last resort, upheld the ruling in March 1992. [27] Otis were confident they would eventually be given the contract and had already started creating designs.

No drilling or shaping was done on site: if any part did not fit, it was sent back to the factory for alteration. [9], The Crdit Industriel et Commercial (C.I.C.) A petition called "Artists against the Eiffel Tower" was sent to the Minister of Works and Commissioner for the Exposition, Adolphe Alphand, and it was published by Le Temps on 14 February 1887: We, writers, painters, sculptors, architects and passionate devotees of the hitherto untouched beauty of Paris, protest with all our strength, with all our indignation in the name of slighted French taste, against the erection of this useless and monstrous Eiffel Tower To bring our arguments home, imagine for a moment a giddy, ridiculous tower dominating Paris like a gigantic black smokestack, crushing under its barbaric bulk Notre Dame, the Tour Saint-Jacques, the Louvre, the Dome of les Invalides, the Arc de Triomphe, all of our humiliated monuments will disappear in this ghastly dream. After the exposition closed, the Flemish restaurant was converted to a 250-seat theatre. It came to a head as work began at the Champ de Mars: a "Committee of Three Hundred" (one member for each metre of the tower's height) was formed, led by the prominent architect Charles Garnier and including some of the most important figures of the arts, such as William-Adolphe Bouguereau, Guy de Maupassant, Charles Gounod and Jules Massenet. helped finance the construction of the Eiffel Tower. The mayor of Blackpool, Sir John Bickerstaffe, was so impressed on seeing the Eiffel Tower at the 1889 exposition that he commissioned a similar tower to be built in his town. Its base is square, measuring 125 metres (410ft) on each side. The tower has been used for making radio transmissions since the beginning of the 20th century. The searchlights on top of the tower made it a beacon in Paris's night sky, and 20,000 flashing bulbs gave the tower a sparkly appearance for five minutes every hour on the hour. These were connected to longwave transmitters in small bunkers. Well then! When the Allies were nearing Paris in August 1944, Hitler ordered General Dietrich von Choltitz, the military governor of Paris, to demolish the tower along with the rest of the city. The foundations were completed on 30 June, and the erection of the ironwork began. Famous visitors to the tower included the Prince of Wales, Sarah Bernhardt, "Buffalo Bill" Cody (his Wild West show was an attraction at the exposition) and Thomas Edison. On 20 November 1913, the Paris Observatory, using the Eiffel Tower as an aerial, exchanged wireless signals with the United States Naval Observatory, which used an aerial in Arlington, Virginia. [citation needed], The car was divided into two superimposed compartments, each holding 25 passengers, with the lift operator occupying an exterior platform on the first level. [47], A fire started in the television transmitter on 3 January 1956, damaging the top of the tower. [60] The tower has operated at its maximum capacity of about 7million visitors per year since 2003. Therefore, SETE may be unable to claim copyright on photographs of Paris which happen to include the lit tower. The City had planned to tear it down (part of the original contest rules for designing a tower was that it should be easy to dismantle) but as the tower proved to be valuable for radio telegraphy, it was allowed to remain after the expiry of the permit, and from 1910 it also became part of the International Time Service. [89], As one of the most iconic landmarks in the world, the Eiffel Tower has been the inspiration for the creation of many replicas and similar towers. The layout of both first and second levels was modified, with the space available for visitors on the second level. The top half was even assumed to have no gaps in the latticework. [22] The finished components, some already riveted together into sub-assemblies, arrived on horse-drawn carts from a factory in the nearby Parisian suburb of Levallois-Perret and were first bolted together, with the bolts being replaced with rivets as construction progressed. And for twenty years we shall see stretching like a blot of ink the hateful shadow of the hateful column of bolted sheet metal.[12]. Eiffel openly acknowledged that inspiration for a tower came from the Latting Observatory built in New York City in 1853. Eiffel chose this "invocation of science" because of his concern over the artists' protest. Tickets can be purchased to ascend by stairs or lift to the first and second levels. It added, however, that permissive situation may arise on commercial use of such images, like in a magazine, on a film poster, or on product packaging.[105]. Eiffel signed it acting in his own capacity rather than as the representative of his company, the contract granting him 1.5million francs toward the construction costs: less than a quarter of the estimated 6.5 million francs. [8] (A 300-metre tower was then considered a herculean engineering effort). Each shoe was anchored to the stonework by a pair of bolts 10cm (4in) in diameter and 7.5m (25ft) long. It was designated a monument historique in 1964, and was named part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site ("Paris, Banks of the Seine") in 1991.[4]. [70] In the years since it was completed, engineers have put forward various mathematical hypotheses in an attempt to explain the success of the design. Most of the party chose to stop at the lower levels, but a few, including the structural engineer, mile Nouguier, the head of construction, Jean Compagnon, the President of the City Council, and reporters from Le Figaro and Le Monde Illustr, completed the ascent. [42] A year later, in February 1926, pilot Leon Collet was killed trying to fly under the tower. Although some visitors could be expected to climb to the first level, or even the second, lifts clearly had to be the main means of ascent. Tickets cost 2 francs for the first level, 3 for the second, and 5 for the top, with half-price admission on Sundays,[31] and by the end of the exhibition there had been 1,896,987 visitors. [3], After dark, the tower was lit by hundreds of gas lamps, and a beacon sent out three beams of red, white and blue light. [95] In June 1990 a French court ruled that a special lighting display on the tower in 1989 to mark the tower's 100th anniversary was an "original visual creation" protected by copyright. [65] As a demonstration of the economy of design, if the 7,300tonnes of metal in the structure were melted down, it would fill the square base, 125 metres (410ft) on each side, to a depth of only 6.25cm (2.46in) assuming the density of the metal to be 7.8tonnes per cubic metre. [19] Those for the east and south legs were straightforward, with each leg resting on four 2m (6.6ft) concrete slabs, one for each of the principal girders of each leg. Lead weights on some links of the upper or return sections of the chains counterbalanced most of the car's weight. These objections were an expression of a long-standing debate in France about the relationship between architecture and engineering. [7] Eiffel initially showed little enthusiasm, but he did approve further study, and the two engineers then asked Stephen Sauvestre, the head of the company's architectural department, to contribute to the design. A pair of 81m (266ft) hydraulic rams were mounted on the second level, reaching nearly halfway up to the third level. The climb from ground level to the first level is over 300 steps, as is the climb from the first level to the second, making the entire ascent a 600 step climb. [52] A year later, an additional lift system was installed in the north pillar. Locally nicknamed "La dame de fer" (French for "Iron Lady"), it was constructed from 1887 to 1889 as the centerpiece of the 1889 World's Fair and was initially criticised by some of France's leading artists and intellectuals for its design, but it has become a global cultural icon of France and one of the most recognisable structures in the world. [citation needed], At the top, there was a post office where visitors could send letters and postcards as a memento of their visit. The sparkly lighting continued for 18 months until July 2001. ", "Do night photos of the Eiffel Tower violate copyright?

Two 1:3 scale models can be found in China, one in Durango, Mexico that was donated by the local French community, and several across Europe.[92]. [59], The tower received its 200,000,000th guest on 28 November 2002. Now to what phenomenon did I have to give primary concern in designing the Tower? Until the 1950s, sets of aerial wires ran from the cupola to anchors on the Avenue de Suffren and Champ de Mars. [50] On 25 June, before the Germans had been driven out of Paris, the German flag was replaced with a Tricolour by two men from the French Naval Museum, who narrowly beat three men led by Lucien Sarniguet, who had lowered the Tricolour on 13 June 1940 when Paris fell to the Germans. The tower has been completely repainted at least 19 times since it was built. Eiffel had a permit for the tower to stand for 20 years.

The 10-ton cars each held 65 passengers. [82] The tower itself is located at the intersection of the quai Branly and the Pont d'Ina. The original hydraulic mechanism is on public display in a small museum at the base of the east and west legs. Prior to the Eiffel Tower's construction, no structure had ever been constructed to a height of 300 m, or even 200 m for that matter,[11] and many people believed it was impossible. The Eiffel Tower was the world's tallest structure when completed in 1889, a distinction it retained until 1929 when the Chrysler Building in New York City was topped out. These had been closed to the public between November and March because the water in the hydraulic drive tended to freeze. Von Choltitz disobeyed the order. [34], Eiffel made use of his apartment at the top of the tower to carry out meteorological observations, and also used the tower to perform experiments on the action of air resistance on falling bodies. [91], There are various scale models of the tower in the United States, including a half-scale version at the Paris Las Vegas, Nevada, one in Paris, Texas built in 1993, and two 1:3 scale models at Kings Island, located in Mason, Ohio, and Kings Dominion, Virginia, amusement parks opened in 1972 and 1975 respectively. The car was pushed up from below, not pulled up from above: to prevent the chain buckling, it was enclosed in a conduit. The new cars operate in pairs, with one counterbalancing the other, and perform the journey in one stage, reducing the journey time from eight minutes to less than two minutes. Although construction involved 300 on-site employees,[19] due to Eiffel's safety precautions and the use of movable gangways, guardrails and screens, only one person died. [72], In May 2016, an apartment was created on the first level to accommodate four competition winners during the UEFA Euro 2016 football tournament in Paris in June. In all, 18,038 pieces were joined together using 2.5million rivets. It is named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel, whose company designed and built the tower. [71], When originally built, the first level contained three restaurants one French, one Russian and one Flemish and an "Anglo-American Bar". The pinnacle height of the Eiffel Tower has changed multiple times over the years as described in the chart below.[107]. An exhibition above a cafeteria on the first floor commemorates this event. At the top, there were laboratories for various experiments, and a small apartment reserved for Gustave Eiffel to entertain guests, which is now open to the public, complete with period decorations and lifelike mannequins of Eiffel and some of his notable guests. [90] Tokyo Tower in Japan, built as a communications tower in 1958, was also inspired by the Eiffel Tower. The visible work on-site was complemented by the enormous amount of exacting preparatory work that took place behind the scenes: the drawing office produced 1,700 general drawings and 3,629 detailed drawings of the 18,038 different parts needed. Gustave Eiffel described some of the responses as vraiment curieuse ("truly curious").[32]. [96] The Socit d'Exploitation de la Tour Eiffel (SETE) now considers any illumination of the tower to be a separate work of art that falls under copyright. [25], Constructing lifts to reach the first level was relatively straightforward: the legs were wide enough at the bottom and so nearly straight that they could contain a straight track, and a contract was given to the French company Roux, Combaluzier & Lepape for two lifts to be fitted in the east and west legs. In 2011, the TV show Pricing the Priceless on the National Geographic Channel speculated that a full-size replica of the tower would cost approximately US$480million to build. Each of these slabs supported a block of limestone with an inclined top to bear a supporting shoe for the ironwork.

[55] In 1987, A.J. Each car travelled only half the distance between the second and third levels and passengers were required to change lifts halfway by means of a short gangway. At the beginning of the 20th century, the engravings were painted over, but they were restored in 198687 by the Socit Nouvelle d'exploitation de la Tour Eiffel, a company operating the tower. The new version gained Eiffel's support: he bought the rights to the patent on the design which Koechlin, Nougier, and Sauvestre had taken out, and the design was put on display at the Exhibition of Decorative Arts in the autumn of 1884 under the company name. The sparkling lights were turned on again on 21 June 2003, and the display was planned to last for 10 years before they needed replacing. [69] All parts of the tower were overdesigned to ensure maximum resistance to wind forces.

In 1909, a permanent underground radio centre was built near the south pillar, which still exists today. "left a crippling legacy of financial extraction and dashed hopes even by the standards of a nation with a long history of both."[10]. He found more at the top than expected, incidentally discovering what are known today as cosmic rays. [3] The Eiffel Tower is the most visited monument with an entrance fee in the world; 6.91million people ascended it in 2015. [84] An average of 25,000 people ascend the tower every day which can result in long queues.[85]. His aircraft became entangled in an aerial belonging to a wireless station. French doctrine and jurisprudence allows pictures incorporating a copyrighted work as long as their presence is incidental or accessory to the subject being represented,[106] a reasoning akin to the de minimis rule. [46], Upon the German occupation of Paris in 1940, the lift cables were cut by the French.

[37] Two years later, on 4 February 1912, Austrian tailor Franz Reichelt died after jumping from the first level of the tower (a height of 57 m) to demonstrate his parachute design. gustave eiffel gloire descendants lyonnais gustaveeiffel paris landmarks vector doodle icons shutterstock parisian french doodles illustrations travel royalty cafe clipart drawing iphone