Chemical control measures should be avoided and ecologically based methods should be used instead. Egg hatches at 100% stage and the vermiform larva emerges with peristaltic contractions. 11 pp.
S. nitens has continuous non-diapausing development (Chapman and Whitham, 1968). Variation and structure of the eyes in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, 134:245-27. S. nitens (Thunberg) is a short-horned grasshopper classified in the Family Acrididae. Biocontrol News and Information, 13(4):61N-68N. Mahowald AP, 1972. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Hawaii Wildlife Fund. Although grasshopper herbivory can have negative economic consequences, it may also have important ecological consequences of interest to land managers and conservation organizations such as effects on plant community structure and rangeland productivity. A study of the chromosomes in meiosis, fertilization, and cleavage in the grasshopper egg, 45:47-93. Chapman RF; Whitham F, 1968. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 22(3):451-456, Branson DH, 2006. It has the same brown and black markings as the embryo.
Bythers RS; Steiner GW; Wismer CA, 1971. It was also found that late-summer orautumn fires in the Northern Great Plains lead to reduced grasshopper populations in the year following a fire, suggesting that fire may be useful as a management tool for grasshoppers (USDA ARS NPARL, 2012b).
Volume I. Acrididae. The fifth instar nymphs and adults of grasshoppers are the most voraceous feeding stages affecting grasslands and crops (Glogozaand Weiss, 1997). Eggs are only covered by white foam, and lack hard shells. The only representative of the genus Schistocerca in the Eastern Hemisphere is S. gregaria according to Lovejoy et al. Revision of the Alutacea Group of genus Schistocerca (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Cyrtacanthacridinae). It lives in many habitats including desert, woodland, and lower elevation mountainous areas. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Schistocerca_nitens&oldid=1099258926, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, This page was last edited on 19 July 2022, at 20:47. Starr; Starr; Abbott, 2004. Gomphocerinp and Acridinp. Females laid eggs 10-15 days during their life span. Rowell CHF; Cannis TL, 1971. The external morphogenesis of grasshopper embryos, 43:161-169. Gomphocerinp and Acridinp. In tropical regions south of the U.S., and perhaps in southernmost Texas and coastal California, all stages can be found at most any time of year. Population outbreaks result in mass migrations from wild rangeland to adjacent cropland. Newly hatched nymphs reach the surface from underground (Bernays, 1971). In: Distribution Atlas for grasshoppers and Mormon crickets in Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, USA: University of Wyoming/USDA-APHIS-PPQ. morphological phylogeny), was probably the cause of misidentification of species as Schistocerca nitens nitens which resulted in many synonymies and subspecies (Dirsh, 1974). Conversely, high humidity approaching 100% and isolation of nymphs minimised the change to only 5%. Mexico City, Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. USA.
USDA. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. Informe final SNIB-CONABIO proyecto No. Similar to S. gregaria, numerous black and unpigmented hairs spring erect, the cervical ampullae deflate, and the mouthparts close medially for the first time. Roonwal ML; 1936, October 26th. Lockwood JA, McNary TJ, Larsen JC, Zimmerman K, Shambaugh B, Latchininsky A, Herring B, Legg C, 2013. Lovejoy N R, Mullen S P, Sword G A, Chapman R F, Harrison R G, 2006. Following ecdysis, the nymph is quiescent for ten to fifteen minutes before taking its initial steps. Journal of Range Management, 35(1):53-56. Habitat management, biological control and ecological studies are all part of the NPARL grasshopper research effort, which has shown that twice-over rotational grazing can reduce grasshopper populations by 70% compared to season long grazing. An annotated list of Orthoptera from St Eustatius and Saba, Dutch West Indies, 12(2):115-126. Acrididae. 1964. Bentley D; Keshishian H; Shankland M; Toroian-Raymond A, 1979. \Waddington, C. H.]. Dirsh (1974) reported cotton Gossypium sp. The interior posterior femur has combs for sound production. S. nitens (Thunberg) is a short-horned grasshopper classified in the Family Acrididae. Bianchi (1964) reported Ananas comosus (pineapple) and sugarcane Saccharum officinarum leaves as hosts in Hawaii. USDA Agricultural Research Service Northern Plains Agricultural Research Laboratory. Whitney Cranshaw/Colorado State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US, Faisalabad; pest on ornamental and crop plants; Original citation: Abbas et al. In S. nitens, this asynchrony was often less than 0-5% of total developmental time. According to Song (2004), S. nitens is the most problematic species in its group due to its external character similarities with other species and variation within itself. Workshop to identify research and mitigation measures to address Schistocerca nitens crisis on Nihoa Island. al, 2009).
Latchininsky AV; Lockwood JA, 2005. Variation in species composition is believed to be related to lizard predation and agricultural management practices; without human land use, populations would be larger (Oku et al., 2011). Likewise,subspecies described by Dirsh as S. nitens virginica, S. nitens nitens and S. nitens columbina are considered species and not subspecies. Environmental factors such as humidity affect the green/brown polymorphism of S. nitens under laboratory breeding conditions (Rowell and Cannis, 1971). Atkinson CT, 2012. On Nihoa Island, Hawaii, it fed on Sidafallax, Sesbaniatomentosa, Solanumnelsonii, Chenopodiumoahuense, Schiedeaverticillata and Pritchardiaremota. (2006) on Isla Socorro (Revillagigedo Archipelago, Mexico) are in contrast with the previously reported morphological descriptions elsewhere. London, Methuen & Co. Ltd., xxii + 763 pp. In California,S. nitens is a pest of grapes (Winkler et al., 1974). Nevertheless, climatic factors can induce the species to become gregarious and capable of flying long distances and invade new areas far from their native range. (2011) described the relative abundance of S. nitens in open plots and farmlands in Calabar Metropolis, South Nigeria, as 14% and 4% respectively. Any stage of its life cycle can be seen at any time of the year, but the adult is less active during the winter and fall. Nihoa Millerbird Acrocephalus familiaris kingi translocation protocols. Ancient trans-Atlantic flight explains locust biogeography: molecular phylogenetics of Schistocerca. (Control biologico de plaga de chapulin en Durango. At present, S.nitens impact has not been estimated in areas where it causes problems. Wyoming, USA: University of Wyoming. Rivera-Garcia GE, 1986. Grasshopper eggs are fertilized when deposited (McNabb, 1928; Slifer and King, 1934) and completion of a pod takes about 1 hour. The following are currently recognized as subspecies, and do not occur in North America north of Mexico or the Greater Antilles: In the United States, before 1974, this species was known most commonly under the name, Four subspecies are currently recognized. Acrida, 1(1):69-77. Cardona JM, 2012. Garcia-Gutierrez C; Gonzalez M, 2011. McNabb JW, 1928. Quiros M; Cranz L, 1977. Mexico D). S. nitens is considered a solitarious grasshopper (Song, 2004). The medial pronotal carina is cut by three transversal sulcus; the posterior femur has black dots on the external upper part. Bianchi FA, Kajiwara JT, 1966. The NPARL (Northern Plains Agricultural Research Laboratory)is working to bring the existing isolates into the USA for large-scale field trials in cooperation with USDA APHIS and the University of South Utah (Diaz-Soltero, 2009; Foster et. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society. by Counce, S. J. Preliminary study of some insects and mites, pests of cultivated cassava (M. esculenta) in Zulia State, Venezuela. Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument Management Plan. By 2000 the species was at population levels large enough to cause damage to native plant species andin 2002 and 2004 there were outbreaks leading to the defoliation of almostall the vegetation(Evenhuis and Eldredge, 2004; DOFAW et al., 2006; Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources et al.,2008). Although other members of the genus Schistocerca are migratory, there is no evidence of S. nitens being migratory in Hawaii (Bowler et al., 1977), although it could be displaced considerable distances by strong winds during trivial flight activity (Johnson, 1969). Insect development. Volcano, Hawaii, USA: Hawaii Wildlife Fund. Grasshoppers of grasslands plains region in Durango, Mexico, 45(3):273-282. External morphology of grasshopper embryos of known age and with a known temperature history, 53:1-21.
In addition, destruction of habitat during harvest could force displaced insects to invade new regions. Nature Communications. Annual Review of Entomology, 55:547-568. http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-ento-112408-085516. It is mostly brown and gray spotted or patched in cryptic coloration. In Nihoa Island, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, S. nitens was first detected in 1984. S.nitens is sympatric with the Central American gregarious locust S.piceifrons (Wlk.). (Chapulines (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) de pastizales de la 'Region de Los Llanos' en Durango, Mexico). Everything else copyright 2003-2022 Iowa State University, unless otherwise noted. Grasshopper and locust control with poisoned baits: a renaissance of the old strategy? Distinctly different looking from all other species with which it can be found, except perhaps, mostly c. CA to c. & s. TX (+ OK-NV) / to Panama -. (Hawaii Department of Land DOFAW; Natural Resources; Division of Fish; Wildlife), 2006. Will often come to lights at night, sometimes in great numbers. The vermiform larva of Schistocerca gregaria (Forskal) : form and activity (Insecta, Orthoptera). DOI:10.1603/0013-8746(2004)097[0420:ROTAGO]2.0.CO;2. by Garcia-Gutierrez, C. \Lozano-Gutierrez, J.]. The male copulatory organ is symmetrical and is a distinctive character for species identification (Song, 2002). In: Insects I. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Orthoptera infestations of Mexico and Central America. They have short antennae with few antennules (>30), sometimes wide and flat at the apex, tympanic organs are at the sides of the abdomen, the stridulating apparatus is type posterior femur-tegmina, and the ovipositor is short and robust with the shape of a pincer. Riedel R; Marinoni RC; Martins-Opolis N, 2008. Stn. These adult and nymph descriptions by Cano-Santana et al. topographic microclimatic) factors affecting its life cycle, 3) dispersal pathways, 4) the potential role of natural enemies for its different life stages, 5) factors limiting outbreaks on large versus small islands in Hawaii, 6) treatment options and potential effects on target organisms, 7) the effectiveness of IPM Reduced Agent Area Treatments (RAATs) in different geoclimatic regions (Latchininsky and Lockwood, 2004), 8) the development of a rapid response protocol including biological, microbial and cultural controls, and 9) the creation of historic grasshopper outbreak frequency maps. S. nitens has spread to the other islands such as Mokumanamana, the French Frigate Shoals and Lisiansky Island. Rather, the grasshoppers reached swarm proportions despite in solitary form, as a result of being an invasive species in an extremely favorable environment. The efficacy of these existence agents must be enhanced, or new agents made available, for biologically-based suppression to feasible (Jaronski, 2012). The Nihoa Millerbird Acrocephalus familiaris kingi (Farmer et al., 2011) and Nihoa finch Telespyza ultimahave been threatened by the extensive defoliation caused by S.nitens (Latchininsky and Lockwood, 2005; Atkinson, 2012; US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2012). Forewings (tegmina) are associated to sound production in locusts. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. > 0C, dry summers, Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. It is a large grasshopper, reaching lengths of 4 to 7 centimeters. Zacatecas, Mexico: Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas. Genus Schistocerca (Acridomorpha, Insecta). Quantitative staging of embryonic development of the grasshopper, Schistocerca nitens, 54:47-74. The grasshopper becomes sexually mature at 3 to 4 months of age. 273 (1588), 767-774. Biology and ecology of Schistocerca nitens [ed. diet) and abiotic (e.g. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B, 226(538):391-421 pp. Conry PJ; Wallace GE; Leonard Jr DL; Fretz JS, 2010. S. nitens is evolutionarily considered a relatively recent species in the Western Hemisphere (Bowler et al., 1977). At 0% stage, freshly deposited eggs are light yellow. We strive to provide accurate information, but we are mostly just amateurs attempting to make sense of a diverse natural world. 12 (3/4), 343-357. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=100177 DOI:10.1007/s10841-008-9143-8. http://www.papahanaumokuakea.gov/management/mp/vol1_mmp08.pdf. S. nitens is polyphagous (Latchininsky, 2008) and probably prefers broad-leaved plant species. Acridoideos (Insecta: Orthoptera) of the State of Guanajuato, Mexico. It is native to southwestern North America, Central America and northern South America. as plant hosts of S. nitens in Guanajuato, Mexico. Quantitative estimation of the stage of embryonic development in the locust, Schistocerca gregaria, 23:705-718. (Insectos fitfagos en pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes K.) para palmito.) (Chapulines (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) de pastizales de la 'Region de Los Llanos' en Durango, Mexico.) Hawaiian Birds: Out of Sight? Biological Monitoring Expedition: Nihoa Island, September 2-9, 2002. by Garcia-Gutierrez, C. \Lozano-Gutierrez, J.]. A method for forecasting potential losses from grasshopper feeding on northern mixed prairie forages. Life-history responses of Ageneotettix deorum (Scudder) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) to host plant availability and population density. It was first reported as invasive in the Hawaiian archipelago in 1964 and is now present on all the main Hawaiian islands. Barrientos-Lozano L, 2003. The hind femora show distinct crossbands (Richman et al., 2003). Contributors own the copyright to and are solely responsible for contributed content.Click the contributor's name for licensing and usage information. (2003) reported Casuarina sp., Helianthus sp., and Schinus sp. Which limiting factors prevent similar outbreaks on the larger Hawaiian islandsare unknown (USDA Forest Service, 2006). All the non-diapausing species show remarkable uniformityin the percentage of time taken to reach a given stage. Quiros M, Cranz L, 1977. Bowler et al. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor.
Journal of Entomology, 3(2):161-166. http://www.academicjournals.net/2/c4p.php?id=2&theme=2&jid=je, Diaz-Soltero H, 2009. Natural enemies, parasitoids and parasites of grasshoppers of Durango, Mexico, were listed as birds, spiders, coleopterans, tachinids and dipterans (Garcia-Gutierrezand Gonzalez, 2011). S. nitens is solitary (not gregarious) and non-migratory (sedentary), but under certain conditions can form swarms or outbreaks and cause damage to crops and native plant species. [Insects I. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 97(3):420-436. Gilmartin WG, 2005. Stn. Lockwood, J. 14 (8), 507-510. http://scialert.net/qredirect.php?doi=pjbs.2011.507.510&linkid=pdf DOI:10.3923/pjbs.2011.507.510.
The use of insecticidal baits has been proposed to target grasshopper populations (Latchininsky and VanDyke, 2006). Journal of Insect Conservation, 12(3/4):343-357. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=100177, Latchininsky AV; Lockwood JA, 2004. The North American grasshoppers. For information on sizes of life cycle stages see Summary of Invasiveness and Description. At 5%, the egg is brown (Bentley et al., 1979). Lockwood JA; McNary TJ; Larsen JC; Zimmerman K; Shambaugh B; Latchininsky A; Herring B; Legg C, 2013. Bowler PA; Trujillo EE; Beardsley JW Jr, 1975. Rowell CHF, 1998. CABI is a registered EU trademark. North American S. nitens can be characterized by tectiform pronotum and mottled tegmina. Following the outbreaks of 2002 and 2004 on Nihoa Island, Hawaii, a study of the population of S. nitens was conducted (Latchininsky, 2008). http://www.usgs.gov/ecosystems/pierc/research/details.html, Brust ML; Keim DL; Jenkins TM, 2015. Eggs on the exterior of the pod tan first. Wallingford, UK: CABI.
The distribution of native S. nitens encompasses southwestern North America (Texas to California, Arizona, Wyoming, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Mexico) (Song, 2002; Salas-Araiza et al., 2003; Lockwood et al., 2013), Central America (Nicaragua and Costa Rica) and northern South America, including Colombia(Rowell, 1998; Arroyo-Oquendo et al., 2004; Cardona, 2012), and in the Caribbean Lesser Antilles (S. nitens caribbeana Dirsh) (Bland et al., 2003). Part 2: Notes. Salas-Araiza MD, Salazar-Solis, G, Montesinos-Silva, 2003. Each pod contained an average of 66 20 eggs (32 minimum to 97 maximum). Its hind tibia shows one inner dorsal apical immovable spine at tip. Lovejoy NR; Mullen SP; Sword GA; Chapman RF; Harrison RG, 2006. Greathead DJ; Kooyman C; Launois Luong MH; Popov GB, 1994. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Hawaii Biological Survey. Duffy DC, 2010. (Schistocerca vaga Scudder)., 19 137. Song H, 2002. Mottled specimens show a dorsal longitudinal yellow band on the pronotum extending to the metadona. This grasshopper species belongs to the Subfamily Cyrtacanthacridinae (Bird Grasshoppers) which are relatively large insects with tegmina usually >30 mm. Slifer EH; King RL, 1934. Starr, Starr, Abbott, 2004. Chemical control is applied under certain conditions but this practice does not provide long-term control, targets potentially important species, and could exacerbate future grasshopper outbreaks (Jaronski, 2012). A manual of the grasshoppers of New Mexico Orthoptera: Acrididae and Romaleidae.
In August 1964Schistocerca nitens, reported as S. vaga (Scudder), was found established on Sand Island, Honolulu, Hawaii, and described as a potential threat (Bianchi 1964). Laboratory rearing of S. nitens (Thunberg) (Latchininsky, 2008) yielded five nymphal instars. Changing seabird management in Hawai'i: from exploitation through management to restoration. Winkler AJ, 1974. USFWS, PIFWO, NOAA, Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources. The Hague, The, Netherlands: Dr. W. Junk B.V. vii + 238 pp. www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/docs/resources/usdanoharm2009.doc. A combination of these two caused intermediate proportions. Early stages in the development of grasshopper eggs of known age and with a known temperature history, 56:593-601. In Hawaii, damage to sugarcane has been reported (Bowler et al., 1977). Dirsh V M, 1974. Embryology of insects and myriapods. Acridoideos (Insecta: Orthoptera) of the State of Guanajuato, Mexico (Acridoideos (Insecta: Orthoptera) del Estado de Guanajuato, Mexico), 89:29-38. The embryological development of the locust., USA: Third report of the US Entomological Commission, 263-285. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 79(2):146-155. http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/kes, Brust ML; Keim DL; Jenkins TM, 2015. 97 (3), 420-436. Researchers are also testing promising pathogens for their potential as biocontrol agents for grasshoppers, as well as examining the insects dietary preferences during different life stages, which could ultimately lead to new cultural methods for curbing population growth (USDA-ARS NPARL, 2012a). Recent introductions for biological control in Hawaii - 17. Oku EE; Arong GA; Bassey DA, 2011. Wildlife Management Institute, Washington, DC, USA: Transactions of the 75th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference. Ingold C, 1971. Part 2: Notes. Wheeler WM, 1893. Environmental factors affecting the green/brown polymorphism in the Cyrtacanthacridine grasshopper Schistocerca vaga (Scudder). Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators has also been proposed by Greathead and Greathead (1992). Greathead DJ; Greathead AH, 1992. http://www.ars.usda.gov/Research/docs.htm?docid=11897, Wagner DL; Driesche RGvan, 2010. As of 2012, these are the only two publications that document the species occurring in the Eastern Hemisphere. In New Mexico, USA, S. nitens is a mixed feeder and will feed on diverse plants such as cotton, alfalfa, citrus and banana (Richman et al., 1993). The development of hemimetabolous insects. Ecology and natural history of Schistocerca americana and S. piceifrons on Socorro Island (Ecologia e historia natural de Schistocerca americana socorro y S. piceifrons piceifrons en Isla Socorro. Five-year Review US Fish and Wildlife Service., USA: US Fish and Wildlife Service Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office. http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/speciesfactsheet.php?id=8897, Fish and Wildlife Service US, 2012. The Nitens Group of the genus Schistocerca is a diverse and problematic one due to the variability present both within species and across them. The genus in the western hemisphere is monophyletic, with S. americana being phylogenetically closest to S. nitens, although S. americana is not sedentary and ocassionally forms swarms. Vol. A contribution to insect embryology, 8:1-160. Species composition of grasshoppers (Orthoptera) in open plots and farmlands in Calabar Metropolis, Southern Nigeria. In: Biological control of grasshopper pests in north-central Mexico, Chapter I. Taxonomy and Bioecology. Distribution Atlas for grasshoppers and Mormon crickets in Wyoming 1987-2012. Ecologically-based preventative management of grasshoppers has received limited attention due to the historical emphasis on grasshopper outbreak suppression and intervention.
In the area of greatest infestation on Oahu, for example, northeasterly trade winds frequently reach velocities of 40 km/h (25 mph). Exp. Influence of male presence on clutch size in Schistocerca vaga Scudder (Orthoptera: Acrididae). In: Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004-2005, France: CIRAD, http://www.cirad.fr/ur/acridologie_en/accueil, Italy: FAO Locusta Watch, http://www.fao.org/ag/locusts/en/info/info/index.html, USA: Orthoptera Species File Online (OSF online), http://orthoptera.speciesfile.org/HomePage.aspx, USA: Schistocerca Information Site, www.schistocerca.org, USA: The Orthopterists Society, http://126.96.36.199/OrthSoc/recordlist.php?-skip=35&-max=5, Alberto Garcia-Moll, Consultant,Puerto Rico. Volume I. Acrididae. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. It is native to southwestern North America, Central America and northern South America. Juan Manuel Cardona Granda (CARANPAIMA).
Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Asynchrony occured among embryos developing in the same pod. Vagrants are occasionally found in Colorado and Nebraska, where the climate is too cold for them to reproduce, otherwise. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 88(4):450-452. http://www.bioone.org/loi/kent. Orthoptera (Grasshoppers, Crickets, Katydids). Annals of the Entomological Society of America. Grasshoppers of Wyoming and the West. (2006). Areas that need further research are: 1) climatologic data to correlate grasshopper abundance with moisture and temperature (which will help to estimate survival rate to drought), 2) biotic (e.g. Oku et al. Natural history of Nihoa and Necker Islands:220 pp. The first instar nymph is bright green. (2012) reported S. nitens as pest of ornamental and crop plants. In 2002 and 2004 outbreaks on the Hawaiian island of Nihoa posed a threat to all the vegetation on the island, particularly endangered plant species. Nymphs are a brown-tan colour with black spots. Potential severe effects on non-target speciesrendered this technique unviable for use on Nihoa Island, Hawaii (Gilmartin, 2005). Anderson DT, 1972. A Hawaii Biological Survey Handbook. Evaluation of microbial and repellent insecticides for control of migratory grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes (Fabricius), in Colorado.
This causes grasshopper populations to collapse, and without new nymphs emerging from desiccated eggs. Thunberg. Johnson CG, 1969. Evaluation of recent isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae against caged Mormon crickets., USA: USDA APHIS Center for Plant Health Science and Technology (CPHST), 46-47. http://www.aphis.usda.gov.d2.nal.usda.gov/plant_health/cphst/downloads/nwsl/2009 FortCollinsPhoenixLabsAnnualReport.pdf http://www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/cphst/index.shtml. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. Oedipodinae. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 14(8):507-510. http://scialert.net/qredirect.php?doi=pjbs.2011.507.510&linkid=pdf. Roonwal ML, 1947. It is far more infectious in Orthoptera than the currently registered Beauveria. Tyrer NM, 1970. Migration and dispersal of insects by flight. Although there was only a small difference between sexes, there was a tendency for males to turn to brown more readily. 1815. S. nitens is also known as S. vaga (Scudder) in the USA (Bianchi and Kajiwara, 1966). (2012), Lowland wet forest, montane wet forest, dry forest, Lesser Antilles (=Schistocerca nitens caribbeana Dirsh, 1974), Isla Socorro, Mexico, new record, Pacific coast; Original citation: Cano-Santana (2006), Known as S. vaga (Scudder) Type specimen from Central America, Nihoa, Mokumanamana, French Frigate Shoals, and Lisiansky Islands; Original citation: Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources et al. Latchininsky A V, 2008. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: US Fish and Wildlife Service, HINWR.