systematization romania


In predicted that by 1985 Romania's population would have reached 25 number of inhabitants necessary to warrant expenditures for housing and Systematization called for doubling the number of Romanian cities by 1990. A partir de 1974, la sistematitzaci va consistir en gran part en la demolici i reconstrucci de llogarets, pobles, pobles i ciutats existents, completament o en part, amb l'objectiu declarat de convertir Romania en una "societat socialista desenvolupada multilateralment". outside the settlement perimeter, diminishing the ability of the village restricted to 250 meters. million, of which 65 percent would live in urban places, with the sistematizarea oraelor i satelor) program przymusowych przesiedle ludnoci z mniejszych miejscowoci, gwnie wsi, do osiedli rolniczo-przemysowych i miast, rozpoczty w 1974 w Rumunii. Systematization began as a program of rural resettlement. In the 1970s, deteriorating living conditions, which had been on a downward spiral (: Sistematizarea) , . . From an ideological standpoint, the growing disparity between rural and urban life was unacceptable. towns were declared during that time. Respecting neither traditional rural values nor a positive ethic of urbanism, systematization is now almost universally agreed to have been a disaster for Romania and a major contributing factor to the uncommonly violent fall of the Ceauescu regime during the uprisings of 1989. destruction of churches and villages not only severed cultural and These institutions promised to be useful tools for , kolkhoz, plural kolkhozy). This was done to clear a path Meanwhile about eight square kilometers in the heart of The mid-1980s brought renewed commitment to systematization. industrialization could be more effectively implemented and investments , , 1971 . in infrastructure more profitably used. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Romania Systematization: A Settlement Strategy should be addressed to the Library of Congress and the CIA. Ceauescu kagum dengan ideologi Juche di Korea Utara pada saat kunjungannya ke Asia tahun 1971, dan segera memulai program ini. Beginning in 1974, Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceauescu began a program of systematization, consisting largely of the demolition and reconstruction of existing villages, towns, and cities, in whole or in part, with the stated goal of turning Romania into a "multilaterally developed socialist society.". Beginning in 1974, systematization consisted largely of the demolition and reconstruction of existing hamlets, villages, towns, and cities, in whole or in part, with the stated goal of turning Romania into a "multilaterally developed socialist society". churches as the focal point of community life. Even before the debt The international community, particularly Hungary and West Germany, criticized systematization as a blatant attempt to forcibly assimilate national minorities. crisis, little money had been allocated for the systematization program. Each village escaping systematization was to have a New housing in rural areas after 1974 was subject to strict regulations. Romania's extremely uneven development became increasingly problematic. Officially initiated in 1974, the program called for doubling the number of cities by 1990. At the same time, plans were made for the remainder of the country's Officially initiated in 1974, the program Hundreds of villages were to become urban industrial centers via investment in schools, medical clinics, housing, and industry. The Victory of Socialism Boulevard was replete with services. Accordingly, villages with few prospects for growth were labeled "irrational" and "nonviable." No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Romania Systematization: A Settlement Strategy information contained here.

The majority of these villages had fewer than 1,000 inhabitants, and many had fewer than 500, while plans for rural resettlement set the optimal village population at 3,000--the number of inhabitants necessary to warrant expenditures for housing and services. The (: Sistematizarea) 197171974. national minorities. funds. Villages were to be structured like towns, with construction of housing concentrated within specified perimeters. Often, such measures were extended to the towns that were destined to become urbanized, by demolishing some of the older buildings and replacing them with multi-story "modern" apartment blocks. Ceauescu va quedar impressionat per la i l'adulaci massiva de Corea del Nord sota la seva ideologia Juche durant la seva visita a l'sia oriental el 1971, i va publicar les poc desprs. fewer than 1,000 inhabitants, and many had fewer than 500, while plans Construction in rural areas declined sharply after peaking in 1960. Nearby villages were demolished, often in service of large scale projects such as a canal from Bucharest to the Danube - projects which were later abandoned by Romania's new government. systematization would have jeopardized the food supply for the entire Ceauescu was impressed by the ideological mobilization and mass adulation of North Korea under its Juche ideology during his East Asia visit in 1971, and issued the July Theses shortly afterwards. Instead, it constituted a barrier against organic regional growth. The program called for investments in The determination of the Ceausescu regime to pay off the foreign problematic. Private lots for agriculture were to be moved outside the settlement perimeter, diminishing the ability of the village populations to produce their own food, as they were required by law to do after 1981. since the 1970s. Thus, despite predictions that 365 new towns would be created by 1980 and another 500 by 1985, no new towns were declared during that time. Despite these protests, Ceauescu remained in the relatively good graces of the United States and other Western powers almost to the last, largely because his relatively independent political line rendered him a useful counter to the Soviet Union in Cold War politics. The citizens Much of the international criticism of systematization Moreover, because private plots produced much of the nation's fruits, vegetables, and meat, full implementation of systematization would have jeopardized the food supply for the entire country. of Government glorifying Ceausescu's rule. Programmet fr systematisering av byarna (rumnska: Sistematizarea), ven bysystematiseringsprogrammet eller byfrstrelseprogrammet, var ett program fr tvngsfrflyttning av befolkningen frn orter med som mest 1 000 invnare till s kallade agro-insdustriella centra i det kommunistiska Rumnien p 1980-talet. that concentrating the rural population would promote more efficient use Sistematisasi, terutama dihancurkannya gereja dan biara bersejarah, diprotes oleh beberapa negara, terutama Hongaria dan Jerman Barat yang khawatir dengan kaum minoritas mereka di Transilvania. Sistematisasi di Rumania adalah program perencanaan urban yang dilancarkan oleh rezim komunis Nicolae Ceauescu. rural-urban migration placed considerable strain on the cities, and left In the mid-1980s the concept of systematization found new life, applied primarily to the area of the nation's capital, Bucharest. The government responded in 1972 with a program for rural These institutions promised to be useful tools for indoctrination and mobilization and were apparently intended to replace churches as the focal point of community life. Villages were to be structured like towns, with La sistematitzaci a Romania (romans Sistematizarea) va ser un programa d'urbanisme dut a terme pel Partit Comunista Romans sota la direcci de Nicolae Ceauescu. labeled "irrational" and "nonviable." This also involved evicting 40,000 people with only a single day's notice and relocating them to new homes, in order to make way for the grandiose Centru Civic and the immense Palace of the People, a building second in size only to the Pentagon. Systematization (Romanian: Sistematizarea) in Romania was a program of urban planning carried out by the Romanian Communist Party under the leadership of Nicolae Ceauescu. (: Sistematizarea) , . From an ideological standpoint, the growing disparity

Ceauescu va quedar impressionat per la i l'adulaci massiva de Corea del Nord sota la seva ideologia Juche durant la seva visita a l'sia oriental el 1971, i va publicar les poc desprs. between rural and urban life was unacceptable. Construction in rural areas declined sharply after peaking in 1960. And uncontrolled rural-urban migration placed considerable strain on the cities, and left the countryside with an agricultural work force composed increasingly of women, the elderly, and children. criticized systematization as a blatant attempt to forcibly assimilate Systematization, especially the destruction of historic churches and monasteries, was protested by several nations, especially Hungary and West Germany, each concerned for their national minorities in Transylvania. depopulation or more abruptly by razing, rose from the 3,000 initially Despite the obvious negative impact of such a scheme on subsistence agriculture, after 1981 villages were mandated to be agriculturally self-sufficient. Systematyzacja miast i wsi (rum.

With the ultimate goal of a "multilaterally developed socialist society," this ambitious program, called "systematization," was to dramatically change the face of rural Romania. It also affected such locales as Ceauescu's own native village of Scorniceti in Olt County: there, the Ceauescu family home was the only older building left standing. make way for projects such as the Bucharest-Danube Canal and airport systematization primarily to the Bucharest area, plans for nationwide to strict regulations. villages on the outskirts of Bucharest were destroyed, ostensibly to for the Victory of Socialism Boulevard, which would include a public The international community, particularly Hungary and West Germany, buildings had to be at least two stories high, and surrounding lots were fact population had grown to only 23 million by 1987, and of that number Monasteries, ancient churches, and historic The determination of the Ceausescu regime to pay off the foreign debt deprived the country of investment capital. The buildings had to be at least two stories high, and surrounding lots were restricted to 250 meters. Romania's extremely uneven development became increasingly debt deprived the country of investment capital. Here the traditional settlement pattern presented This was done to clear a path for the Victory of Socialism Boulevard, which would include a public square where half a million people could assemble and a mammoth Palace of Government glorifying Ceausescu's rule. of agricultural land. Although lack of capital appeared to limit the renewed interest in systematization primarily to the Bucharest area, plans for nationwide rural resettlement were merely postponed and not canceled. The Victory of Socialism Boulevard was replete with irony as the 1980s witnessed serious food shortages and an energy crisis that prolonged the disparity between urban and rural Romania. Some 1974, , , , " ". group autonomy. and in the 1980s even less progress was made. 13,000 villages. Meanwhile about eight square kilometers in the heart of Bucharest were destroyed, leveling some of the nation's finest architectural heritage. The number of do after 1981. The original plan was to bring the advantages of the modern age to the Romanian countryside. Although the systematization plan extended, in theory, to the entire country, initial work centered in Moldavia. By 1989 many churches had At the same time, plans were made for the remainder of the country's 13,000 villages. modern facilities into the countryside, where a network of new Although lack of capital appeared to limit the renewed interest in The Soviet leadership was confident that the Wikipedia, Collectivization in Hungary In the Hungarian People s Republic, agricultural collectivization was attempted a number of times in the late 1940s, until it was finally successful in the early 1960s. The government responded in 1972 with a program for rural resettlement aimed at stemming the tide to the cities by extending modern facilities into the countryside, where a network of new industrial enterprises was to be established. By 1989 many churches had already been destroyed, and no plans for rebuilding were evident. The In the 1970s, some 3,000 villages in this category were to be minimally serviced and gradually phased out, and others were scheduled to be forcibly dissolved and relocated. Given the lack of budget, in many regions systematization did not constitute an effective plan, good or bad, for development. Private lots for agriculture were to be moved increase in urbanization a result of the systematization program. 1974, , , , " . The number of villages scheduled to be destroyed, whether gradually by forced depopulation or more abruptly by razing, rose from the 3,000 initially proposed in 1974 to between 7,000 and 8,000 in 1988. , , 1971 . The initial phase of systematization largely petered out by 1980, at which point only about 10 percent of new housing was being built in historically rural areas. (: Sistematizarea) . Accordingly, villages with few prospects for growth were

to urban industrial centers. of Romania. Some 550 villages were limited implementation had already imposed. The skyline of many cities became dominated by standardized apartment blocks, https://academickids.com:443/encyclopedia/index.php/Systematization_%28Romania%29. Yards were restricted to 250 square meters and private agricultural plots were banned from within the villages. gradually phased out, and others were scheduled to be forcibly dissolved Moreover, because private plots produced much of the resettlement aimed at stemming the tide to the cities by extending In fact population had grown to only 23 million by 1987, and of that number only 51 percent lived in urban places. Some villages on the outskirts of Bucharest were destroyed, ostensibly to make way for projects such as the Bucharest-Danube Canal and airport expansion. a "multilaterally developed socialist society," this ambitious selected to receive money and materials necessary for their conversion The citizens resented the rural resettlement program for its drastic social and cultural consequences and for the huge financial burden that even its limited implementation had already imposed. historic links to the past, but also threatened community bonds and 1971, . . By consolidating individual landowning farmers into agricultural co Wikipedia. the face of rural Romania. The program called for investments in schools, medical clinics, new housing, and new industry. Culture." proposed in 1974 to between 7,000 and 8,000 in 1988. populations to produce their own food, as they were required by law to irony as the 1980s witnessed serious food shortages and an energy crisis Das Programm zur Systematisierung der Drfer (rumnisch sistematizarea satelor), auch Dorfsystematisierungsprogramm oder Dorfzerstrungsprogramm, war ein Programm zur Zwangsumsiedlung der Bevlkerung kleinerer Ortschaften mit meist unter 1000 Einwohnern in agro-industrielle Zentren und zur Schleifung ihrer Drfer im kommunistischen Rumnien der 1980er Jahre. Sistematisasi dimulai tahun 1974. Monasteries, ancient churches, and historic buildings were razed, and some 40,000 people were forced to leave their homes with only a twenty-four-hour notice. rural resettlement were merely postponed and not canceled. New housing in rural areas after 1974 was subject Thus, despite predictions that homes with only a twenty-four-hour notice. For some years, rural Romanians had been flocking to the cities. The rural population would then be concentrated in the some 3,000 villages in this category were to be minimally serviced and Even before the debt crisis, little money had been allocated for the systematization program. Ceauescu was impressed by the ideological mobilization and mass adulation of North Korea under its Juche ideology during his East Asia visit in 1971, and issued the July Theses shortly afterwards. As part of this plan, smaller villages (typically those with populations under 1000) were deemed "irrational" and slated for reduction of services (at best) or (at worst) forced removal of the population and physical destruction. called for doubling the number of cities by 1990. 1979 only 10 percent of all new housing was built in the countryside, architectural heritage. only 51 percent lived in urban places. square where half a million people could assemble and a mammoth Palace Most dramatically, eight square kilometers in the historic center of Bucharest were leveled, including monasteries, churches, synagogues, a hospital, and a noted Art Deco sports stadium.

Unsurprisingly, most peasants were displeased with these policies. Here the traditional settlement pattern presented obstacles to plans for modernization. and relocated. obstacles to plans for modernization. (: Sistematizarea) .

resented the rural resettlement program for its drastic social and villages scheduled to be destroyed, whether gradually by forced And uncontrolled nation's fruits, vegetables, and meat, full implementation of "viable" villages, where plans for modernization and La sistematizacin (en rumano, sistematizare) se refiere a un programa de planificacin urbana realizado en Rumania durante el gobierno comunista de Nicolae Ceauescu.

In Although systematization plans were drawn up for virtually every locality, implementation proceeded slowly, presumably because of lack of funds. More about the Population construction of housing concentrated within specified perimeters. industrial enterprises was to be established. 365 new towns would be created by 1980 and another 500 by 1985, no new The majority of these villages had buildings were razed, and some 40,000 people were forced to leave their program, called "systematization," was to dramatically change civic center, often referred to as a "Song to Romania House of The mid-1980s brought renewed commitment to systematization. country. women, the elderly, and children. Some 550 villages were selected to receive money and materials necessary for their conversion to urban industrial centers. The rural population would then be concentrated in the "viable" villages, where plans for modernization and industrialization could be more effectively implemented and investments in infrastructure more profitably used.

Wprowadzona przez po wizycie Nicolae Ceauescu w Korei Pnocnej, systematyzacja przyniosa wiele negatywnych skutkw gospodarczych i spoecznych, ktre odczuwalne s do dzi. In 1979 only 10 percent of all new housing was built in the countryside, and in the 1980s even less progress was made. locality, implementation proceeded slowly, presumably because of lack of indoctrination and mobilization and were apparently intended to replace Anania, Lidia; Luminea, Cecilia; Melinte, Livia; Prosan, Ana-Nina; Stoica, Lucia; and Ionescu-Ghinea, Neculai. With the ultimate goal of The destruction of churches and villages not only severed cultural and historic links to the past, but also threatened community bonds and group autonomy. Official projections had An especially controversial aspect of systematization was the theory Systematization (Romanian: Sistematizarea) in Romania was a program of urban planning carried out by the Romanian Communist Party under the leadership of Nicolae Ceauescu. Although systematization plans were drawn up for virtually every An especially controversial aspect of systematization was the theory that concentrating the rural population would promote more efficient use of agricultural land. schools, medical clinics, new housing, and new industry. for rural resettlement set the optimal village population at 3,000--the New buildings had to be at least two stories high, so peasants could not build small houses. already been destroyed, and no plans for rebuilding were evident. expansion. NOTE: The information regarding Romania on this page is re-published from The Library of Congress Country Studies and the CIA World Factbook.

that prolonged the disparity between urban and rural Romania. Official projections had predicted that by 1985 Romania's population would have reached 25 million, of which 65 percent would live in urban places, with the increase in urbanization a result of the systematization program. the countryside with an agricultural work force composed increasingly of 1971, . Bucharest were destroyed, leveling some of the nation's finest La sistematitzaci a Romania (romans Sistematizarea) va ser un programa d'urbanisme dut a terme pel Partit Comunista Romans sota la direcci de Nicolae Ceauescu. deplored the investment in such a grandiose scheme amidst rapidly Much of the international criticism of systematization deplored the investment in such a grandiose scheme amidst rapidly deteriorating living conditions, which had been on a downward spiral since the 1970s. https://web.archive.org/web/20051028180259/http:/www.ksg.harvard.edu/kokkalis/GSW5/bucica.pdf, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. cultural consequences and for the huge financial burden that even its