social salience definition


After we have outlined our proposal, we briefly turn to an apparent puzzle that was raised during the workshop leading to this special issue: several presenters pointed out that salience sometimes seems to be inversely related to the frequency of a variant and other times positively related. A study by Flavius Kehr offers a solution to mitigate the extent of the salience bias in the field of personal privacy. For a concept that plays such a central and ubiquitous role in sociolinguistic explanations, this is arguably a dangerous state of affairs. Join our team to create meaningful impact by applying behavioral science, 2022 The Decision Lab. Morris. ), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 11, pp. Here we contribute to these efforts. This dichotomy has been coined the privacy paradox. The surprisal of a word in (linguistic) context has been found to be proportional to its average reading time (Frank and Bod, 2011; Smith and Levy, 2013; Linzen and Jaeger, 2016). They found that the location of the product on a shelf could impact intentions to purchase, with closer (and therefore more visually salient) items being chosen more often than those further away. Rapid expectation adaptation during syntactic comprehension.

For example, the cost and environmental impact of driving could be displayed in real time from the start of each trip, or the impact of current driving style on vehicle range, gasoline costs, or material strain. The unfamiliar lect by definition differs from what the listener has previously experienced. (2010). It essentially boils down to, when a stimulus is distinct, we pay more attention to it. The importance of context on salience has been demonstrated in a number of ways. The salience bias (also known as perceptual salience) occurs when we focus on items or information that are especially remarkable while casting aside those that lack prominence. It can be the result of a host of emotional or cognitive factors, not necessarily from some physical feature in the persons field of view. This could potentially lead to better treatments for people suffering from chronic pain. This article considers how we treat money differently depending on its sources and intended use. In the areas of resource consumption, having an awareness of salience bias can lead people to make environmentally-conscious decisions. For many people, the benefits of a warm shower are immediate and perceptible, but the water and energy costs are much less so. Another example would be if you find certain smells or sounds particularly salient because they were present in your childhood home when you were growing up. Such ad-hoc associations should be even more likely when listeners have other reasons to believe (rightly or wrongly) that the producer belongs to a novel groupa prediction that, to the best of our knowledge has not been directly tested. Why do we focus on items or information that are more prominent and ignore those that are not? When one person's mistake is another's standard usage: The effect of foreign accent on syntactic processing, The Development of Standard English 1300-1800: Theories, Descriptions, Conflicts, Bayesian surprise attracts human attention, Alignment as a consequence of expectation adaptation: syntactic priming is affected by the prime's prediction error given both prior and recent experience, Salience as an explanatory factor in language change: evidence from dialect levelling in urban England, Language Change: The Interplay of Internal, External and Extra-linguistic Factors, Robust speech perception: recognize the familiar, generalize to the similar, and adapt to the novel. Lazy Thinking: How Cognitive Easing Affects the Decision Making Process of Business Professionals. When we are aware that the bias is at play, it can enable us to step back and properly evaluate the decision that is soon to be made. Specifically, real-time feedback can mitigate the salience bias impact on caloric intake. [6]Ambler, T.; Braeutigam, S.; Stins, J.; Rose, S.; Swithenby, S. (2004). Studies have shown that real-time feedback on a specific behavior can induce large behavioral changes. The lexical nature of syntactic ambiguity resolution, Eye movements reveal the on-line computation of lexical probabilities during reading. Privacy Policy - Terms of Service. Surprisal has also been found to be correlated with neural signatures in ERP or MEG studies (Frank et al., 2015; for further references, see Kuperberg and Jaeger, 2016).

Studies have shown that citizens know there are certain policies they should support because of how they will benefit society, yet they choose not to because other policies might be visibly beneficial. (2014). It considers the salience bias to be a primary factor that has limited our ability to take real action in hopes of protecting the environment. This leads to these salient factors to be most influential when ascribing a cause to someone's behavior.An example would be someone who watches the news and sees several news stories of violence in their city. To counter this occurrence of the salience bias, researchers have found that people will support policies that they know they should support when these policies are implemented in a visible rather than opaque fashion. This is avoided, if some probability mass is held out to account for the fact that we do, in fact, observe novel events even as adults. Learn more Many people are very worried about protecting their personal information when using the internet. Additionally, an avid listener of music could find a tune or melody that they enjoy to be particularly salient if they heard it while walking down the street. [2]Craske M.G., Treanor M., Conway C.C., Zbozinek T., Vervliet B. Does verb bias modulate syntactic priming?

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Surprisal is predicted to cause the initial salience experienced when observing a lectal variant that was unexpected based on prior experience. In this way, our own internal thoughts and feelings can assign salience or lack thereof to objects, people, or ideas. Awareness, salience, and stereotypes in exemplar-based models of speech production and perception. Lond. Research in sociolinguistics has identified a number of perceptual features that can contribute to the perception of a variant as salient, such as a priori perceptual or articulatory distinctiveness (for review, see Auer et al., 1998). Discount is valid on purchases made directly through IGI Global Online Bookstore (, Transformative Open Access (Read & Publish), Learn more in: The Meaning of Consumption. FOIA Verena et al.

Thus, being aware of the salience bias can enable consumers to make well-informed decisions that may save them money down the road.9. Having an awareness of our biases to salient aspects of life can safeguard against poor reasoning and costly mistakes in our personal and professional lives. iMotions A/S (VAT: DK 33504004) is registered in Denmark. Salience of somatosensory stimulus modulating external-to-internal orienting attention. Hanulkov A., van Alphen P. M., van Gochnd M. M., Andrea W. (2012). Since the expectations that determine the surprisal of a lectal variant reflect the individual's previous language experience, it naturally follows that initial salience can be different for different social groups (Kerswill and Williams, 2002) and individuals (see also Hickey, 2000; Campbell-Kibler, 2012). The same souped-up sports car from the example above may be very distinct and memorable in the parking lot of the local grocery store, and it may go totally unnoticed among all the other cars at a racing championship. Feldman et al., 2009). [8]OConnell, B., Walden, S. and Pohlmann, A. This means that the sensory information (such as the brightness, size, or volume), or semantic information (such as how personally relevant the stimulus is) can be changed to modulate how likely it is that certain stimuli are attended to. People must, thus, maintain awareness of the salience bias when using the internet. However, salience is a hard to define concept (for review, see Auer et al., 1998; Kerswill and Williams, 2002) and, partly as a consequence, notoriously difficult to quantify (Hickey, 2000). When purchasing a car, customers know they should consider such factors as fuel economy in their decision, yet they often forget about fuel economy when they see the attractive physical features that cars have to offer. Harnessing Our Inner Angels and Demons: What We Have Learned About Want/Should Conflicts and How That Knowledge Can Help Us Reduce Short-Sighted Decision Making. We believe that advances in computational psycholinguistics offer definitions of sociolinguistic salience that are more concrete, both empirically and formally grounded, and quantifiable (and thus falsifiable).

(2011). The salience biasdescribes our tendency to focus on items or information that are more noteworthy while ignoring those that do not grab our attention. Work on this paper was partially supported by NSF CAREER award IIS-1150028 and NICHD grant R01 HD075797 to TFJ. By using eye tracking, researchers can see what is and isnt attended to. Next we turn to the question of how the initial salience of a variant is related to the probability that the variant will become associated with the lect, thereby acquiring social meaning. Although your likelihood of being a victim of violence has not changed, the memory of violence in your city remains salient in your mind and makes you feel more vulnerable when leaving your home. Once reminded, customers can then decide whether the risk of sharing their personal data is worth whatever salient aspect of the website originally caught their eyes.8 It is the hope of Kehr that internet users can thus use such an awareness to ensure that they are not giving away information that could put them in at risk of identity fraud and other similar situations. Copyright 1988-2022, IGI Global - All Rights Reserved, (10% discount on all e-books cannot be combined with most offers. While the ability to quickly detect what is important and deserving of attentional resources is an important survival and learning mechanism, our predisposition to focus on the most prominent and emotionally striking details at hand leads us to ignore potentially vital pieces of information. Singapore HQ +65 8480-9180 | Taiwan +886 931 684 806 | [emailprotected]. While frequently investigated in a visual context, salience is also investigated with auditory, tactile, or other sensory stimuli. sharing sensitive information, make sure youre on a federal Kraljic T., Brennan S. E., Samuel A. G. (2008). To learn more about different aspects of human behavior, download our free human behavior guide below. Understanding how objects are salient is also more than just understanding whats most significant to an individual its also about understanding how our attention is captured and kept. Received 2016 Apr 7; Accepted 2016 Jul 12. : The modes of folk linguistic awareness, Learning to represent a multi-context environment: more than detecting changes, Operationalising salience: Definite article reduction in the North of England, The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics, Towards a unified socio-cognitive framework for salience in language.

web browser that Indeed, it is the belief of many researchers that if we can develop an awareness of this bias, many of our individual and societal problems could be solved. Using eye tracking to predict salient regions of web pages.

What we do and our personal interests can also affect what we find salient. It can be the result of a number of emotional or cognitive factors, not necessarily from some physical feature that someone can clearly see. Many consumers ultimately purchase a car that has salient features despite the fact that this was not the financially prudent decision. Thus, there is strong reason to believe that real-time feedback about caloric intake throughout the day would be helpful to individuals suffering from salience bias.4. Feldman N. H., Griffiths T. L., Morgan J. L. (2009). As is well-known from sociolinguistic research, talkers differ in their pronunciation, lexical, and syntactic preferences (among other things, Labov, 1972). Researchers have suggested that giving individuals real-time feedback concerning the choices they are about to make is one solution to avoiding the trap of the salience bias. Yet, people tend to overlook this difference because it often appears irrelevant from an objective point of view. Allcott, H. and Wozny, N. (2014). These prior expectations, we further submit, depend not only on linguistic context (e.g., the probability of a lectal variant given surrounding phonological or lexical information, including the presence or absence of other lectal variants) but also on social context (e.g., the probability of a lectal variant given socio-indexical information about the talker). Fine A. Events that we do not expect, or that are surprising to us, tend to stand out. Specifically, individuals may find certain aspects of a website such as the design or the content to be especially appealing. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. When shopping for a new car, consumers will know that they should consider fuel efficiency, yet they are drawn to attractive features of the car that provide no financial incentive. MacDonald M. C., Pearlmutter N., Seidenberg M. (1994).

Germany +49 (0)151-63980468 | [emailprotected], United States distances social tch It is in this sense that the salience of a lectal variant is inversely related to frequencyspecifically to the expected relative contextual frequency of the variant2. Recognizing this link offers the opportunity to ground sociolinguistic salience in human information processingboth empirically and theoreticallyoffering a parsimonious account of initial salience. We draw on basic concepts from probability and information theory to define initial salience as a function of (top-down) prior expectations. This motivates the present commentary. Additionally, at a systemic or political level, researchers have pointed to the delayed implementation of laws and policy as a potential way of avoiding the bias. Creel S. C., Aslin R. N., Tanenhaus M. K. (2008). Garnsey S. M., Neal J. P., Elizabeth M., Melanie L. (1997). accent, dialect, idiolect, salience, surprisal, prediction, expectation, learning, The development of Japanese passive syntax as indexed by structural priming in comprehension, Subjective and objective parameters determining salience in long-term dialect accommodation, Awareness and Control in Sociolinguistic Research. A classic example of this is the Weapon Focus Effect [4], in which study participants were less likely to remember the details of a convenience store interaction if one character was holding a gun, rather than a neutral object. While many individuals state to have high privacy concerns, prior research has shown that they often freely disclose private information when using information systems like the internet. to improve the efficiency of search engines; [10]. B., Florian Jaeger T., Thomas A. F., Ting Q.

Due to the salience of these aspects, people may forget about their privacy concerns as they willingly give up their personal information to websites that suit their tastes.

For example, businesses often run into planning errors and delays because of a failure to account for less salient aspects of their operations such as administrative tasks or other ancillary steps that must be taken. Europe HHS Vulnerability Disclosure, Edited by: Adriana Hanulikova, University of Freiburg, Germany, Reviewed by: Lauren Squires, Ohio State University, USA; Christian Langstrof, University of Freiburg, Germany; Daniel Mller-Feldmeth, University of Freiburg, Germany, This article was submitted to Language Sciences, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology. Accommodating variation: dialects, idiolects, and speech processing, Human adults and human infants show a perceptual magnet effect for the prototypes of speech categories, monkeys do no. Second, computational psycholinguistics has linked the very same quantities to language processing and learning. This article addresses the cognitive barriers that we face as a society to tackling the issue of climate change. Viewed this way, we can think of the sociolinguistic salience that a lectal variant acquires over time as being a function of its (perceived) informativeness about social group membership. Research has also shown how the purchase decisions can be shaped by the saliency of pricing information. Afterwards, Taylor and Fiske asked the people from the circle to attribute cause for several incidents. (1987). Point of view and perceptions of causality. The researchers found that different methods of coping with pain were impacted by the way in which the salience was changed. Adaptation to changes in the statistics of the environment should be sensitive to surprisal (or more generally to expectation violation): the degree to which inputs differ from prior expectations is informative about how and how much learners need to adapt their future expectations (Courville et al., 2006; Qian et al., 2012). CEO: Peter Hartzbech. The relevance and value of brands or organisations in providing offers which resonate. High frequency in the novel lector specifically the cumulative effect of the surprisal experienced whenever a variant is encountered againis predicted to increase the likelihood that the listener learns that the variant is associated with the lect (this idea is closely related to the mutual information between the variant and lect). 2There is one caveat to this prediction: prior expectations also affect what we perceive (cf. Weatherholtz K., Jaeger T. F. (in press). Bollinger et al.

(2013). making the webpage display the users country), designers can shape our attention. As a result, Taylor and Fiske were able to determine that the salience of certain factors can influence what people see, hear, and decide. The salience bias arises from a contrast (often unexpected) between items and their surroundings, such as a black sheep in a herd of white sheep, or a person talking on the phone in a quiet elevator. Min Kim [7]found that potential purchasers were less likely to buy when the pricing of items were segregated (e.g. Consider, for example, a specific linguistic variable, such as /t/-deletion or flapping: if this variant occurs overall much more frequently in a newly encountered lect than a priori expected or in different phonological and lexical contexts than a priori expected, it will have high surprisal (this reasoning also extends to novel, not previously encountered, variables)1.

As a consequence, efficient and robust language processing requires that linguistic expectations need to flexibly adapt to these differences (Fine et al., 2013; Kleinschmidt and Jaeger, 2015). (2017). Search inside this book for more research materials. However, influences of prior experience are arguably as important or more important. The salience bias is featured prominently as the article discusses how our perception of money can dramatically change. Clayards M., Tanenhaus M. K., Aslin R. N., Jacobs R. A. Salience has similarly been invoked when aiming to explain implicit social inferences about, or attitudes toward, speakers who exhibit certain variables in their speech (Babel, 2016; Drager and Kirtley, 2016; Squires, 2016). (2015). The context of the stimulus is also an important determining factor for how salient the object is. Effects of short-term exposure to unfamiliar regional accents: Australians' categorization of London and Yorkshire English consonants, Proceedings of the 15th Australasian International Conference on Speech Science and Technology, The effect of word predictability on reading time is logarithmic, Knowledge, processing, evaluation: Testing the sociolinguistic perception of English subject-verb agreement variation, Social Differences in the Processing of Grammatical Variation, Processing grammatical differences: Perceiving versus noticing, Uncovering the role of gender stereotypes in speech perception, Congruence between word age and voice age facilitates lexical access. government site. The views expressed here are not necessarily those of the funding agencies. Hunt Allcott and Nathan Wozny illustrate this bias in their study of how consumers undervalue future gasoline costs relative to purchase prices when they choose automobiles. Recent studies have further linked surprisal to implicit learning operating during language processing (Fine and Jaeger, 2013; Jaeger and Snider, 2013; for a related view, see Dell and Chang, 2014). New York: Academic Press.

The salience bias occurs when we base our decisions on factors that appear most salient.

The contributions of verb bias and plausibility to the comprehension of temporarily ambiguous sentences, Spoken word recognition processes and the gating paradigm, A probabilistic Earley parser as a psycholinguistic model. Kehr, F. (2016). There is now evidence that listeners develop and store implicit models or expectations about different lects that they have been exposed to (Niedzielski, 1999; Strand, 1999; Bradlow and Bent, 2008; Walker and Hay, 2011; Hanulkov et al., 2012; Shaw et al., 2015; for review, see Foulkes and Hay, 2015; Kleinschmidt and Jaeger, 2015). During language processing, words and structures that are less expected are processed more slowly (e.g., MacDonald et al., 1994; Garnsey et al., 1997; McRae et al., 1998; McDonald and Shillcock, 2003) and they are recognized accurately less often in noise (Cole and Perfetti, 1980; Grosjean, 1980). Though maintaining awareness of the bias is no silver bullet that can ensure our decisions are always well-informed, it can mitigate some of the more detrimental impacts of the bias. Policymakers can also take the salience bias into account in hopes of mitigating its negative effect at the societal level. Intuitively, listeners should be more likely to learn an association between the variant and the novel lect in the latter case: while the surprisal of a lectal variant determines how much it stands out, the frequency with which the lectal variant is observed increases the probability that the variant is perceived and learneda prerequisite to becoming associated with the lect. The reviewer DM and handling Editor declared their shared affiliation, and the handling Editor states that the process nevertheless met the standards of a fair and objective review. Most of us work & live in environments that arent optimized for solid decision-making. [9]Bercea, M.D. Imagine a listener during the first moments of encountering a talker who speaks in an unfamiliar lect. Heeding the voice of experience: the role of talker variation in lexical access, The P-chain: relating sentence production and its disorders to comprehension and acquisition. The salience bias is once again at play in this scenario as the salient features of a cars exterior sway the consumer to make a decision that does not consider whether or not the car is fuel efficient. Specifically, surprisal is high when first encountering unfamiliar lectal variants. Chan,B.K.H. As a result, the salience bias impedes us from focusing on the actions required to protect the environment. Someone who works in fashion, for example, will be more likely to notice fashion-related details than someone whose primary interest lies elsewhere. about navigating our updated article layout. (2013). These are just some examples of the importance of understanding saliency, and how this research can further progress in various fields. This effect has been broadened and defined as an emotion-induced memory trade-off, where emotional and therefore salient objects are attended to and better-remembered, at the expense of their surrounding contexts [5]. Another example is if youre an arachnophobic youll likely be quicker to respond to a spider than someone who isnt afraid of spiders. Milkman, K. L., Rogers, T., & Bazerman, M. H. (2008). Psychologists have used such an approach with EEG and pain-inducing stimuli in order to help further understand how chronic pain is dealt with [1]. Consider a novel talker producing a high surprisal variant only once, compared to producing that (equally high surprisal) variant repeatedly. Overcoming Salience Bias: How Real-Time Feedback Fosters Resource Conservation. It is in this sense that the resulting sociolinguistic salience of a variant is positively related to its (actually observed relative) frequency in the novel lect. Some facts about weapon focus.. Brightness, loudness, size, and so on can all lead an object to be more likely to be noticed, and potentially more memorable. Log in. The Effect of Salience on Mental Accounting: How Integration Versus Segregation of Payment Influences Purchase Decisions.

However, this policy is more strongly associated with its concrete attributes and tangible implications when it is implemented in the near future (e.g., this will increase in the price of gas), leading citizens to oppose the policy.5. Consider the Cocktail Party Effect youll hear your name in a crowd of conversation because it is personally relevant to you, and filter it out despite all the other noise. Armenia, G. (2013). Some sociolinguistic variables are prone to hypercorrection, stigmatization and style shifting, while other variables are not. Unexpectednessor the degree to which something is violating our expectations based on previous experiencecan be measured in a number of ways. Taylor, S. E., & Fiske, S. T. (1978). and transmitted securely. National Library of Medicine Perception of speech reflects optimal use of probabilistic speech cues, Listening for mispronunciations in a children's story: the use of context by children and adults. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).