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He led the Soviet Union through World War II and shaped Soviet policies in the early years of the Cold War. A Democratic Senator from New York State from 19271949, Wagner was respon- sible for the passage of some of the most important legis- lation enacted through the New Deal. A socialist and pacifist as a young man, he came out of World War II committed to the doctrine of the just war and the necessity of resisting dark forces of evil like Hitler and Stalin, while remaining outspoken in defense of progressive social causes. MacArthur would go on to command American troops in the Korean War until he was relieved of his duties by President Harry S. Truman for insubordination in 1951. Oklahoma-born and Tuske- gee-educated novelist best known for writing Invisible Man, one of the great novels of the twentieth-century African-American experience. U.S. Navy admiral who was Commander-in-chief of the Pacific Naval Forces for the United States and its allies during World War II. Vietnamese revolutionary nationalist leader. 36th President of the United States, 1963 to 1969. American politician principally known for serving as Eisenhowers Secretary of State. New York-born playwright who dramatized the pitfalls of postwar American materi- alism in Death of a Salesman and Cold War hysteria in The Crucible, among other plays. The flamboyant, vain, and brilliant American commander in the Philippines and mastermind of the leapfrogging strategy for bypass- ing strongly defended Japanese islands during World War II. Vice President under Franklin Roosevelt in 1945, Truman assumed the office of the presidency in April of that year, when Roosevelt died from a brain hemorrhage while vacationing in Warm Springs, Georgia. Castros connections with the Soviet Union led to a cessation of diplomatic relations with the United States and such international affairs as the Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis. King was an outspoken advocate for black rights throughout the 1960s, most famously during the 1963 March on Wash- ington where he delivered the I Have a Dream speech. Secretary of State under President Roosevelt and chief architect of the low-tariff reciprocal trade policy of the New Dealers. Truman won another term in his own right in an historically close election in 1948 against Republican Thomas Dewey. He was a well known opponent of Franklin D. Roosevelts New Deal policies. Khrushchev defended Soviet-style economic planning in the Kitchen Debate with American Vice President Richard Nixon in 1959, and attempted to send missiles to Cuba in 1962 but backed down when confronted by John F. Ken- nedy during the Cuban Missile Crisis. He was Vice President under Eisenhower from 1953 to 1961 and defended American capitalism in the 1959 Kitchen Debate with Khrushchev. The thirty-sec- ond president of the United States, Franklin Roosevelt was the only American president to be elected to four terms of office.

Former World War II general who became secretary of state under President Harry Truman.

McCarthy conducted high-pro- file red-baiting hearings that damaged countless careers before he finally over-reached in 1954 when he went after the U.S. Army. He assumed blame for the Bay of Pigs invasion and was credited for impressively handling Cuban Missile Crisis. A former New York social worker, Hopkins came to be one of the major archi- tects of the New Deal, heading up the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and Works Progress Administra- tion, and serving as a personal confidant to President Roosevelt. Nazi dictator of Germany from 1933 to 1945, Hitler was the mastermind behind the Holocaust. Mussolini launched Italy into World War II on the side of Axis Powers and became a close ally of Adolf Hitler. Finnish-American architect and industrial designer who perfected his sleek, machine- like building style in such modernist landmarks as New Yorks TWA Flight Center and St. Louiss Gateway Arch. Beginning in 1941, Ho organized Viet- namese opposition to foreign occupation, first against the Japanese and then, after World War II, against the French. He first won the presidency against Republican incumbent Herbert Hoover in 1932 in the depths of the Great Depression and was credited with having devel- oped a program, called the New Deal, that shepherded the nation out of crisis. Frenetic novelist and progen- itor of the bohemian Beat Generation (a term he coined). Nixon rose to national promi- nence as a communist hunter and member of HUAC in the 1950s. Cuban revolutionary who over- threw Batista dictatorship in 1958 and assumed control of the island country. He led the war to unify the country in the face of increased military opposition from the United States. During his two terms, from 1952 to 1960, Eisenhower presided over the economically prosperous 1950s. Louisiana Governor, later Senator, whose anti-New Deal Share Our Wealth program promised to make Every Man a Kingthat is, until he was gunned down in 1935. As Soviet premier, he notably renounced Stalins brutality in 1956, the same year that he crushed a pro-Western uprising in Hungary. As President, he launched New Frontier programs and urged legislation to improve civil rights. Stalin secured protective satellite states in Eastern Europe at Yalta Con- ference and pushed Soviet scientists to develop atomic weapons, escalating an arms race with the United States. After a series challenges from within his party, he chose not to run for reelection in 1968. 2003-2022 Chegg Inc. All rights reserved. He also played a major role in the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 and the Wagner-Steagall Housing Act of 1937. Khrushchev was a Communist Party official who emerged from the power struggle after Stalins death in 1953 to lead the USSR. In 1958, he issued an ultimatum for Western evacuation of Berlin, from which he backed down a year later. New Jersey-born poet who served as spokesman of the Beat Generation.

A Catholic priest from Michigan who goaded 40 million radio listeners with his weekly anti-New Deal harangues. Foreign trade increased appreciably under all the trade pacts that he negotiated. He was assassinated in Memphis in 1968 while support- ing a sanitation workers strike. Pioneering Pop artist known for his iconic portraits of Cold War Americas material objects, including soup cans and soda bottles. He gained celebrity after publishing the groups unofficial bible, On the Road. Friedans book sparked a new consciousness among suburban women and helped launch the second-wave feminist movement. Pediatrician and author of The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care, which instructed parents on modern child-rearing, replacing tra- ditional means of passing along such knowledge. Leader of Chinese National- ists, also known as Chang Kai-shek. A Navy hero from World War II and son of a prominent Boston businessman, Kennedy won election to the House of Representatives in 1946 and to the Senate in 1952. A Texas Democrat who rose to tremendous power in the Senate during the New Deal, Johnson was tapped to be John F. Kennedys running mate in 1960. A controver- sial figure, Castro oversaw his country through the end of the Cold War, when financial and military support from the Soviet Union dissipated, and through nearly a half-century of trade embargo with the United States. One of the chief architects behind the United Nations, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945 for co-initiating the United Nations.". He remained head of the Spanish state until his death in 1975. He was defeated by Mao Zedongs communist revolutionaries in 1949 and was forced to flee to the island of Taiwan, where, with the support of the United States, he became president of the Republic of China. The 1956 publication of his Howl and Other Poems sparked a San Francisco literary renaissance and a local obscenity trial that brought nationwide publicity to the bohemian Beat movement.

Spanish general who became head of state after his fascistic troops prevailed over the republican Loyalists in the Spanish Civil War. His gallant struggle against polio and his enormous tal- ents as a politician helped made him a beloved leader for a dozen difficult years in the nations history. Following the Army-McCarthy hearings, he was censured by Senate and died of alcoholism shortly thereafter.

Civil rights leader and Baptist preacher who rose to prominence with the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955 and founded the South- ern Christian Leadership Conference in 1957. Warren was prin- cipally known for moving the Court to the left in defense of civil and individual rights in such cases as Brown v. Board of Education (1954), Griswold v. Connecticut (1965), and Miranda v. Arizona (1966). Premier of the Soviet Union from 1958 to 1964. He helped to persuade FDR to push ahead with preparations for developing the atomic bomb, but later ruefully declared that annihilation of any life on earth has been brought within the range of technical possibilities.. He strategized the important victories in the Battles of Mid- way and the Coral Sea.

Fascist leader of Italy from 1922 to 1943. Feminist author of The Feminine Mystique in 1960. President of Egypt from 1956 to 1970. He was praised for his dignity and decency, though criticized for not being more assertive on civil rights. American diplomat who authored the containment doctrine in 1947, argu- ing that the Soviet Union was inherently expansionist and had to be stopped, via political and military force, from spreading throughout the world. The highest-rank- ing African-American in the Roosevelt administration, Bethune headed up the Office of Minority Affairs and was a leader of the unofficial Black Cabinet, which sought to apply New Deal benefits to blacks as well as whites. Chosen largely to help solidify support for the Democratic ticket in the anti-Catholic South, he assumed the presidency after Kennedys assassination in 1963. He remained the head of Cubas government until his retire- ment in February 2008. Parks became a living symbol of the spirit of the Civil Rights Movement and the cause of racial equality throughout her long life. The first woman cabinet member and Secretary of Labor under Roosevelt, Frances Perkins helped draw labor into the New Deal coalition. He resigned the presidency amid the Watergate scandal in 1974. In 1960, he narrowly defeated incumbent vice-president Richard Nixon in 1960 to become the youngest person ever elected president. Soviet dictator from Lenins death in 1922 until his own death in 1953. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas, on November 22, 1963, by Lee Harvey Oswald. The wife of Franklin Roosevelt, Eleanor Roosevelt was the most active First Lady the United States had ever seen, and was known for her devotion to the impoverished and oppressed. Nasser was known for his pan-Arab nationalism and opposition to colonialism, specifically in his decision to nationalize the Suez Canal in 1956.

Supreme Commander of U.S. 37th President of the United States, 1969 to 1974. A liberal Protestant theologian whose teachings and writings aimed to relate Christian faith to the realities of modern politics. Spock is often said to have been the bible of the baby boomer generation. As president, he chose to use nuclear weapons against Japan at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A retired physician who had lost his savings in the Great Depression and pro- moted a plan, popular with senior citizens, to pay every person over sixty $200 a month, provided that the money was spent within the month. An ardent Cold Warrior, he drafted the policy of boldness designed to confront Soviet aggression with threat of massive retaliation via thermonuclear weap- ons, and supported American intervention in Vietnam. His Viet Minh forces were victorious against French colo- nialists in 1954, after which Ho became the leader of North Vietnam. Liberal California politician appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court by Dwight Eisenhower in 1953 (served until 1969). His rapacious quest for power provoked World War II.

When World War II broke out in Europe, he steered the United States into the war, which in the end proved more effective than the New Deal in helping the nation recover from difficult economic times. NAACP leader in Montgomery, Alabama, who inaugurated that citys famous bus boycott in 1955 by refusing to give up her seat on a public bus to a white passenger. Senator from Wisconsin who rose to infamy by accusing the State Department of employing communists. New York-based painter who became the father of abstract expressionism with his spontaneous action paintings.. As president, he was responsible for liberal pro- grams such as the Great Society, War on Poverty, and civil rights legislation, as well as the escalation of the Vietnam War. Nixon ran unsuc- cessfully for president against John F. Kennedy in 1960, but was elected to the presidency in 1968 and 1972. Commonly known using only his first name, Elvis was an icon of popular culture, in both music and film. German-born scientist who immigrated to the United States in 1933 to escape the Nazis. Known as the rich mans Roosevelt, Willkie was a novice politician and Republican businessman who lost to Franklin Roosevelt in the 1940 presidential campaign. Although his reputation was tarnished somewhat by his countrys military failure against Israel in the 6 Days War of 1967, he remained a popular leader in Egypt and throughout the Arab world. Forces in Europe during World War II, Eisenhower the war hero later became the thirty- fourth president of the United States. 35th President of the United States, 1961 to 1963. Although Willkie won more votes than any previous GOP candidate, Roosevelt still beat him by a landslide. He was the originator of the concept of the Marshall Plan to provide aid to reconstruct Western Europe in 1947. Memphis-born singer whose youth, voice, and sex appeal helped popularize rock n roll in the mid-1950s. The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 was popularly known as the Wagner Act in honor of the Senator. One estimate had the scheme costing one-half of the national income.