the new normal classroom modality of teaching

doi: 10.1080/10494820.2020.1813180, Ali, W. (2020). Table 5 represents distance learning and indicates once again that ICT knowledge has one of the best scores. 1, 224238. Online and remote learning in higher education institutes: a necessity in light of COVID-19 pandemic. During the periods in which the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 was at very high levels, it was necessary to engage in distance education or blended education, and teachers had to quickly readjust to these changes. Education for development: from distance to open education. Learn. OECD, Paris, 14. 18, 125. B. However, the transition to the large-scale online learning is a very difficult and complex task for education systems. The satisfaction of the private University students was very similar with respect to these three teaching methods used in this University, with a slightly higher preference for face-to-face teaching. Factors considered in the following sections are the type of University, whether it is public or private, and the type of studies pursued, since there will be some in which an online model has already been implemented naturally, or vice versa, i.e., 100% face-to-face modality. Descriptive statistical analysis of the Academic Activity Scale in Study 1 with distance education. Second, both the knowledge and the professional competencies required to implement these methodologies are in the spotlight, requiring the training of professionals and students. Source: Own elaboration. Blackboard opens directly in a browser without the need to install any software to join a session. 42 557563. These measurements allowed us to determine the characteristics of their asymmetry and homogeneity without the need to represent them graphically. (2019). We must choose a modality without affecting education. In the case of the public University, the resources needed to broadcast the class from the University classroom for the blended methodology were scarce. Hum. There was a 1.2-pp increase in satisfaction with the presence learning in Study 2 compared with Study 1. These increases in scores will be explained in detail in the Conclusion section. 2021. There is no previous research using the Online guide classroom approach. This model is based on a combination of classroom education and online education in various forms (Lightner and Lightner-Laws, 2016; Nuruzzaman, 2016; Heilporn et al., 2021). Active Learning Strategies in Higher Education. The teachers were trained in new online methodologies and showed interest in learning new teaching tools in the face of the new reality and challenges that arose. 4:14. doi: 10.21013/jems.v4.n1.p14, Panisoara, I. O., Lazar, I., Panisoara, G., Chirca, R., and Ursu, A. S. (2020). Finally, Table 3 represents the scores and indices of the statistical analysis of face-to-face education. This type of teaching methodology could not be applied from March to September 2020 due to the declaration of a State of Alarm by the government of the nation. The advantage of this typology compared with hybrid education, in which half of the students follow the class from home, or compared with a blended education, in which the face-to-face education is alternated with online teaching, is that, in Mirror Rooms, the students do not depend on their resources or the connection in their homes, since the entire process is carried out in the educational center, including the online part. A person who has been in contact with another person who has tested positive for COVID-19 should take the contagion test and stay at their home until the results of the test are known. doi: 10.1007/s11125-020-09464-3, Dede, C. J. The purpose of this study report is to share what we learned about the response to COVID-19. The worst score, i.e., the satisfaction of the students, is 7.0. Revista De Medios Y Educacin 53, 93107. Thanks to training during the distance education and blended education classes, face-to-face teachers have learned new skills. Educause Review. COVID-19 and online teaching in higher education: a case study of Peking University. In exceptional situations that impede the normal functioning of institutions and face-to-face educational centers, teachers may be forced to quickly adapt their pedagogical activity to a virtual environment. La oferta web de postgrados e-learning y blended-learning en Espaa. Using the SPSS (IBM SPSS Statistics) statistical software, the missing values were evaluated, considering the items of each instrument to estimate whether it responded to a random distribution (Tabachnick et al., 2011). However, it also meant improvements.

AV and JMV conceptualized and wrote the manuscript. The blended learning modality reached an average of 7.0, i.e., 1.1 percentage points lower than in the previous study. Ben-Chayim, A., and Offir, B. Social cognitive predictors of academic interests and goals in engineering: utility for women and students at historically black universities. We must not confuse this type of teaching, i.e., distance education, with the Emergency remote education. Descriptive statistical analysis of the Academic Activity Scale in Study 2 with presence learning. The advantage of this type of teaching is that, if the teacher is in the previous situation, is in quarantine and might have been exposed to COVID-19, or is even unable to attend a class, e.g., for other activities, e.g., assisting a Congress in another country, students will not miss class. Students, as well as the teacher, had to adapt to the situation that was being experienced around the world and to change their teachinglearning methodology in order to continue learning. (2019). Given this lack of infrastructure, the main source of advice and early support for non-expert distance teachers was focused on providing the technological tools available in each institution and was considered adequate to support the change. UNESCO (2021). As shown in Tables 79, the complete sample is analyzed, i.e., Study Sample 1 and Study Sample 2, which composes the complete sample of Study 3. (2020). Another disadvantage supposes students do not have any engagement directly with the lecturer, who will be in standing in another classroom, being a similar situation to that in asynchronous online classes. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Knowledge. MedEdPublish 9:82. doi: 10.15694/mep.2020.000082.1, Simpson, O. Asymmetry and kurtosis indicated the shape of the distribution of our variables. J. Educ. It can be especially advantageous for confined situations, in science subjects where students need to use the laboratory, or under meteorological circumstances that make it impossible to travel to class. Previous research has shown efforts to include this methodology, although few studies report the impact on student learning and the associated metrics of interest, such as qualifications, retention, pass rate, and time to graduation (Lightner and Lightner-Laws, 2016; Beatty, 2019, Binnewies and Wang, 2019; Mumford and Dikilita, 2020). Previous studies have emphasized the educational benefits of the use of this teaching practice (Bigg, 2003; Konopka et al., 2015; Crisol Moya, 2016; Anderton et al., 2021; Garca-Pealvo et al., 2021). Knowledge in ICT was the least necessary for performance. Result of the items studied Comparative of teachings in bar diagram in Study 3. Face-to-face classes, in general, would resume in September. J. Surg. Descriptive statistical analysis of the Academic Activity Scale in Study 2 with blended learning. doi: 10.30935/cedtech/8584, Sandars, J., Correia, R., Dankbaar, M., de Jong, P., Goh, P. S., Hege, I., et al. Using active methodologies: the students' view. Location(s): Home. Each participant responded using a 10-point Likert-type scale, 1 being totally disagree and 10 totally agree.. teaching virtual doi: 10.1177/1052562918777550, Konopka, C. L., Adaime, M. B., and Mosele, P. H. (2015). doi: 10.5539/hes.v10n3p16, Anderton, R., Vitali, J., Blackmore, C., and Bakeberg, M. (2021). Boston, MA: Longman. Third: The current scenario, the COVID-19 scenario with some restrictions, living with the virus: a combination of online, semi-presential, and online guide classrooms. This means fewer contact hours for each subject, which will be compensated with work from home. Educ. Changes also occurred in the rest of the scores, but they were not as significant as the previous ones. B. Noronha, and C. L. Souza (Hershey, PA: IGI Global), 219231. Covid-19 pandemic and online learning: the challenges and opportunities. A systematic literature review on synchronous hybrid learning: gaps identified. doi: 10.1080/08886504.1990.10781919, Evans, D. J., Bay, B. H., Wilson, T. D., Smith, C. F., Lachman, N., and Pawlina, W. (2020). Available online at: (accessed December 2, 2020). Each educational center had to base its teaching on the online mode and to adapt teachers and students to this new reality: videoconferencing software was used to avoid social disconnection, students were disoriented, ignorance of new tools had to be overcome to teach classes, and the evaluation systems need to be redesigned. The idea behind this study, echoing the proposals of Bigg, is the recognition that any discourse on change and transformations of the school and its teachers is not limited only to the school environment. The Government and the Autonomous Communities of Spain agreed that the academic year of 20192020 Educational System would end in June, and repetition would be exceptional at primary and secondary levels.

In this study, we described preferences of teaching and learning modalities and showed that, although students value the possibilities of technology very positively, face-to-face communication with the teacher, to a larger degree, is believed to be required for success in their studies. The students in Study 2, who had already experienced the restrictions and social distancing due to the pandemic, valued these items much more than the students in Study 1, which is very likely because they were able to enjoy face-to-face teaching again. To be able to adequately follow daily teachings, there is indeed a need for the students themselves to have the necessary resources at their disposal, such as Internet connection and smart devices, so that they can connect to classes that today seem accessible to any University student of a developed country, but it will be important to provide the necessary resources for all students of any social context.

51, 10451060. Regarding Table 1 on the blended learning from Study 1, the degree of satisfaction in the students was very high, which indicates an excellent degree of significance (George and Mallery, 2011). From March to September 2020, due to the declaration of a State of Alarm by the National Government, the educational centers could not be opened, and they had to optimally adapt to this fact. To our knowledge, the Online guide classroom is an innovative methodology, appropriate for the times we live in, which potentially offers many advantages in the various situations studied in this research. Geographical distribution of the Spanish universities with activity in the academic year 20192020. Tait, A. Using Multivariate Statistic. Front. Recommendations for mandatory online assessment in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic, in Radical Solutions for Education in a Crisis Context, eds D. Burgos, A. Tlili, and A. Tabacco (Singapore: Springer), 8598. IBM SPSS Statistics 21 Step by Step: A Simple Guide and Reference. Educ. George, D., and Mallery, P. (2011). The Spanish University System (SUE) is made up of a total of 83 universities50 public and 33 private (Figure 1). However, it also has shortcomings, as can occur with other blended methodologies, i.e., failures in technical infrastructure, image quality, audio, internet connection, etc., so universities need to make a stronger investment in technology. Dev. The use of the hybrid-flexible (HyFlex) instructional methodologies is relatively recent in higher education (Beatty, 2019). 16:1. doi: 10.9743/jeo.2019.16.1.1, Bergdahl, N., and Nouri, J. The private University installed high-quality cameras and microphones so that the classes could be broadcast live. The emergency remote teaching required by the pandemic was often quickly improvised, without guaranteed or adequate infrastructure support (Evans et al., 2020; Hodges et al., 2020; Panisoara et al., 2020). Technol. Zabala, A., and Arnau, L. (2015). In Table 8, the complete distance learning sample is analyzed. 51, 11171135. One of the main advantages of Blackboard Collaborate is that one can run the application without having to install it on your computer. A face-to-face University that decides to include non-face-to-face teachings in its degrees and master's studies must combine its traditional procedures with the new requirements of non-face-to-face teaching (Chick et al., 2020). The blended learning modality reached an average of 8.1, obtaining scores around 7.5 and 9.3. Using technology to maintain the education of residents during the COVID-19 pandemic. The benefits of the blended education are for professors and students. From September 2020, in Spanish universities that followed this methodology, groups of face-to-face students and online students alternated to achieve social distance without having to modify the structure of the classrooms. The highest scores for satisfaction, participation, and accessibility stand out with 8.6, 8.4, and 8.0, respectively. Once again, it is remarkable that all the variables have ideal indices in terms of the arithmetic mean, SD, asymmetry, and kurtosis (George and Mallery, 2011). 12:648592. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.648592. Learn. Future investigations can validate the conclusions drawn from this study. In addition, students will be able to continue enjoying University life and to carry out group work in person with their classmates. The universities that have already had this experience, even though they have been mostly presential, have been able to adapt more quickly to the suspension of in-person activity. This study is useful for learning about different teaching methods that exist and which ones may suit us best depending on the context, situation, and needs of our students. The best score, as in previous studies, is the knowledge of ICT, with a score of 9.8. As a result of the enrichment of their knowledge in new didactic resources, the innovation in teaching methodologies and the ICT knowledge of teachers improved due to the pandemic. Psychol.

intervention interventions Implementing Student-Directed Hybrid Classes. In this study, we found differences between universities depending on the economic investment they had made in their facilities. doi: 10.1037/0022-0167.52.1.84, Leoste, J., Tammets, K., and Ley, T. (2019). The main objective since the beginning of all these changes was to preserve the natural progress of the classes and ensure that the changes in methodology did not affect the quality of the education and the satisfaction of the students. Technol. This adaptation has meant a great enrichment of their knowledge in new didactic resources to teach their classes. doi: 10.1108/ET-11-2012-0123. In this situation, teachers, who physically have no symptoms and are well, have noticed how their teaching has been interrupted, being a detriment to their students. Six main items were assessed, in addition to the academic quality and the satisfaction of the students, over the three phases listed earlier. (2005). 117. *Correspondence: Ana Verde,, ORCID: Ana Verde Jose Manuel Valero, These authors have contributed equally to this work, Covid-19 and Beyond: From (Forced) Remote Teaching and Learning to The New Normal in Higher Education, View all Prospects 49, 9196. Interact. Each University, therefore, chose the type of methodology that it would use to carry out in its classes.

If the technical means are not very good, i.e., if there are failures in the cameras, the microphone, or the program used by students to connect at home, students will lose their attention and interest. This is known here as emergency non-face-to-face teaching. The private University provided an email to raise questions and gave live online courses for teachers. Other important aspects to consider are accessibility, participation, and satisfaction, i.e., Items 1, 2, and 3, which also improved substantially in Study 2. As of the new academic year 20202021, which began in September 2020, this teaching modality became eligible again. Technol. (2020). Technol. The Community of Madrid, Spain, forced the closure of educational centers on March 12, 2020. However, the worst score is the participation of the students (6.4), and excellent statistical indicators were obtained in all the statistical items. On the contrary, the greatest decrease in Study 2 compared with Study 1 occurred in accessibility in the blended learning modality, reaching a 2.5-pp decrease. The literature highlights deficiencies in the transition from face-to-face teaching to online teaching due to the weakness of the online teaching infrastructure, the inexperience of teachers, the digital divide, a complex home environment, etc. The average evaluation of the presence learning is 8.8, with the second- and third-most valued items being satisfaction and accessibility. Received: 31 December 2020; Accepted: 16 July 2021; Published: 24 August 2021. Br.

interventions intervention Educ. Technol. B. (2018). Active teaching and learning methodologies: some considerations. The best score was obtained for knowledge in ICTs, and the worst was for accessibility (Figure 3). Anat. 5:609703. doi: 10.3389/feduc.2020.609703, Bao, W. (2020). The approach utilized suffers from the limitation that the study only captured the sample of two Spanish universities, i.e., one private and one public. The participation of the educational community and, in this specific case of the University, the process of change can be the determining factors in the success of any innovation initiative that is attempted and, in the guarantee, through innovation and the use of ICT, of high levels of satisfaction in our students (Bigg, 2003; Tait, 2018; Bergdahl and Nouri, 2020; Reimers and Schleicher, 2020). J. In this case, an average of 7.8 was reached. The percentage of women in the first group of students surveyed was much higher, but this was compensated with the incorporation of the second group of students surveyed, reaching a final proportion of 60% women and 40% men. Table 2 represents the scores and indices of the statistical analysis of distance education. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30547-X. Descriptive statistical analysis of the Academic Activity Scale in Study 1 with blended learning. Multidiscip. Source: Own elaboration. - Out of the 50 public universities, 47 offer presence learning, and 1 offers distance learning. Creat. Although they maintain their main face-to-face structure, they offer students some distance-based degrees and master's studies (Ben-Chayim and Offir, 2019; Ali, 2020; Hodges et al., 2020). Presence learning involves contact with students, the elimination of technical difficulties, equal resources for all students, and the elimination of potential family conciliation problems for both teachers and students. Table 2. The pedagogy of blended learning: a brief review. Flexible teaching and learning modalities in undergraduate science amid the COVID-19 pandemic. A blended model: simultaneously teaching a quantitative course traditionally, online, and remotely. The effects of the pandemic have affected and continue to affect education methods every day. doi: 10.1016/j.jsurg.2020.03.018, Crisol Moya, E. (2016). The most notable evolutions are the 3.2-pp increase in ICT knowledge, the 2.2-pp increase in the innovative value of teaching practice, the 1.8-pp increase in participation, and the 1.2-pp increase in satisfaction with the presence learning in Study 2 compared with Study 1. Res. Environ. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Before administering the questionnaire to the students, compliance with all the required ethical standards was ensured as follows: written informed consent, the right to information, confidentiality, anonymity, gratuity, and the option to abandon the study (MacMillan and Schumacher, 2001). Although they maintain their main face-to-face structure, they offer students some distance-based degrees and master's studies. To maintain the safety distance measures in the case of not having large enough classrooms, the group of students is divided into two subgroups. In the case of the 6 items, students were given a questionnaire made up of 6 parameters to be assessed individually. High. Location(s): University. Another new approach to blended learning education that is proposed in this study is what we have called the Online guide classroom. This new methodology has been made evident by the new reality of the pandemic. Manage. Hybrid-Flexible Course Design. 2, 113115. Table 9. As shown in Table 9 of our analysis on the presence learning, all statistical values are excellent and optimal (George and Mallery, 2011). Educ. The sample consisted of 307 University students who voluntarily decided to participate in the investigation and who were subdivided into two groups. In this study, Item 6, i.e., ICT Knowledge, improved 3.2 pp, and Item 5, i.e., Innovative value of teaching practice, was also better valued in 2021 because teachers learned new applications and methodologies for online and hybrid teaching that they later incorporated into face-to-face classes.